|Political party||Number of secured seats|
|Independent Members of Parliament||13|
|People's Alliance Party||8|
|Association of Independent Members||7|
|Solomon Islands Democratic Party||5|
|Solomons National Party||5|
|Solomon Islands Party for Rural Advancement||5|
|Solomon Islands Liberal Party||4|
|Social Credity Party||3|
|Total number of seats||50|
Thomas Koh Chan & Laurie Hok Si Chan
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- Thomas Koh Chan
- Laurie Chan
- Thomas Koh Chan & Laurie Chan in politics
Thomas Koh ChanThomas Koh Chan (born 27 October 1957 in Auki, Malaita)3, referred to commonly as (Sir) Thomas Chan14 or (Sir) Tommy Chan,2 is an ethnic Chinese52 naturalized6 entrepreneur and politician on Solomon Islands of Roman Catholic denomination.3
PoliticalThomas Chan and Moon Pin Kwan (also ethnically Chinese) were both elected as Members of Parliament (MPs) on 6 August 19977. Moon Pin Kwam became MP for Honiara and Chan became MP for West Guadalcanal, which was surprising to many observers because that part of Solomon Islands had no ethnic Chinese population. Further more, this was the first time that Chinese officially entered the countries' politics.5 His son Laurie Chan also became MP during the consecutive election, cf. Thomas Koh Chan & Laurie Chan in politics > Parliamentary functions – Comparison with Allan Kemakeza & Snyder Rini.
- Thomas Chan was National President of the political party Association of Independent Members (AIM), as reported in 2006.1
- His biography (last modified on 22 April 2008) at the National Parliament of Solomon Islands noted his "political affiliation" as "Leader of Independent Group".3
- Thomas Chan (in a 2010 source) is mentioned to be associated with the Association of Independent Members of Parliament (AIMP). The same source explains that there are also non-affiliated independent members of Parliament outside of the Association of Independent Members of Parliament (AIMP).8
(...) more and more MPs come to office as independents, and this further contributes to the decline in the ability of established political parties to form governments. (...) Most governments since independence9 have had members of the Association of Independent Members of Parliament (AIM) and independent MPs in their ruling coalitions. High rates of independence also explain the frequency of floor crossing in parliament as independent MPs are not affiliated to political parties that could possibly restrict them from doing so.8They have caused the collapse of governments on Solomon Islands10, and are very much intertwined with the lack of political frameworks:
These independent members are attracted to and support individuals (big men) whom they see as having the potential to assert their interests and those of their constituents. They could withdraw their support when they see that another big man could promote their interests much better.10Toswell Kaua1011, in August 2007, on a motion of sine die12, stated it this way:
Mr Speaker, whilst I acknowledge that we do not have just the Government and Opposition in this honourable house, we also have a third sector in this Chamber, the Independent Group. We do not have developed political parties with permanent party politic affiliations.8
United Democratic Party (UDP)A 2014 newspaper article noted Thomas Chan as president of the United Democratic Party. This article's English contains spelling mistakes and is too ambiguous to let me understand if it either purports that this party was formerly called the Association of Independent Members of Group (AIMG), or that Thomas Chan used to be president of the latter association (AIMG).13
On 10 November 2016 it became known that Thomas Chan, as the national president of the United Democratic Party, decided to kick the Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare out of that same political party.1415
On 14 November 2016, it was communicated through a newspaper that a Cabinet Minister claimed that most Members of Parliament and ruling Ministers disagreed with Thomas Chan's decision to remove the Prime Minister from UDP.16
On 16 November 2016, it was communicated that the Attorney General of Solomon Islands, James Apaniai, reasoned that Chan's attempt to revoke the party membership of the PM was invalid, breaching multiple regulations and even the constitution of that party.17 On 24 November 2016, an unnamed official at the Office of the Prime Minister commented the following on the matter:
UDP president Sir Thomas Chan was the man behind all this. It was through his push that the government had to allocate the multi-million dollar under-water cable project to Chinese telecommunications giant Huawei. Now Sir Thomas wants the country to switch ties from Taiwan to Mainland Chinatown. But Mr Sogavare is standing in his way. To achieve his intention, Mr Sogavare must be removed. The charges they came up with against Mr Sogavare were mere cover-ups. Their real intention is to get the country to switch its ties.18Through the media, Thomas Chan also denied allegations (allegations spread by the Prime Minister, according to Chan) regarding $40 million worth of kickbacks promised to him, in relation to the same Sydney-Honiara undersea cable optic fibre project which for which Huawei was appointed earlier in 2016.19
EnterprisesThomas Chan is one of the most influential businessmen of Solomon Islands. Other prominent businessmen are Moon Pin Kwan and the Quan brothers who own retailing and wholesale shops in Honiara.5
By September 1998, the following businesses were owned by Thomas Chan:20
- Honiara Hotel20 (cf. Thomas Koh Chan > Enterprises > Honiara Hotel);
- Chan Wing20 (a major supermarket in Honiara), possibly identical to Wings Supermarket (also owned by Thomas Chan)13.
- Tambea Tourist Resort20 (possibly identical to Tambea Village Hotel Resort: formerly referred to as Tambae Resort: the first tourist resort on Solomon Islands, 40–45 km West from Honiara, opened on August 1969 by Dalice and Olle Torling and 60 local village shareholders, who due to the government's insistence on local participation owned 8% of its shares; ran by Mr and Mrs Torling; contained 24 bungalows in 1993212223)
- Wings Shipping20 (which used the same address as Honiara Hotel: P.O. Box 4, Honiara)24. Wings Shipping (a Honiara based shipping company, agency or both25 reportedly also ships between Honiara and Western Province26). Two vessels which certainly belonged to Thomas Chan: "MV Yandina" and "Compass Rose II",27 were thus possibly part of this company. "MV Yandina" and "Compass Rose II" were once used to carry supplies to the Choiseul and Western provinces (cf. Charity). The vessel MV Yandina was "washed ashore during rough seas" some years before 2016. Remains of the wreck lie visibly at the central market jetty. In a newspaper article of 25 March 2016, it was communicated that market vendors wanted the shipwreck remains at the market jetty cleared immediately, since it is obstructing them from berthing their boats carrying market produces.28
Honiara HotelHoniara Hotel is owned by Thomas Koh Chan132, is located near Chinatown, and has been owned by Thomas Chan since at least 1993, when it entailed 66 rooms.29 The hotel (which is located at P.O. Box 4, Honiara, Solomon Islands) currently describes itself as follows:
Honiara Hotel has been in business in the Solomon Islands for over 43 years. The property was first established in 1960's with accommodation in the old wing (Basic Rooms), followed by refurbishment and building additional accommodation in the Ocean View wing, Paradise wing and the Luxury wing rooms. The hotel is situated in extensive lush tropical surroundings with car park facilities available near the hilltop rooms. With three international restaurants, lap size pool and a poolside Margaritas bar and lounge, guests can enjoy magnificent views over looking the sea across to Savo Island.30It lists types of accommodation and, further more, 3 conference facilities:
CharityThomas Chan was Chairman of a Honiara-based fundraising committee, which on Friday 25 March 2011 at Honiara Hotel, donated a cheque of > SBD$700,000 to Frank Ingruber, the Australian High Commissioner to Solomon Islands, which was witnessed by Deputy Prime Minister Manasseh Maelanga. This donation was made for relief efforts following the Australian 2010–11 Queensland floods. The committee was spearheaded by Ken Kwan, Father John Lamani and Tomas Chan.4
Following the 2 April 2007 Solomon Islands earthquakes and tsunamis, EAGON Pacific Plantation Limited donated [SBD]$20,000 to the December 2004 tsunami committee headed by Thomas Chan to purchase goods for the affected Western and Choiseul provinces. Thomas shipped the supplies there using two of his boats: MV Yandina and Compass Rose II. The committee asked for donations to Honiara citizens, and therefor to contact Thomas Chan at his Honiara Hotel. Other donations to the committee included ± 500 bags of 20kg rice. When arrived, the supplies would be handed over to the National Disaster Management coordinators for distribution.27
On Friday 11 and Saturday 12 April 2014, a Flood Fundraising Event was held at "Le Flamingo club" in Honiara Hotel, for victims of the floods on the Solomon Islands following the Tropical Cyclone Ita. All entrance money and beverage sales were donated to the Flood Fundraising Appeal fund.3132
An 11 April 2014 newspaper article claims that, "in the past years" Thomas Chan’s Fundraising committee had raised funds, for the following causes, among others:
- The Western province tsunami
- West Guadalcanal floods
- Asian Tsunami
- China Earthquakes
- Fijian floods
- Taiwan Floods
- Victoria Bush fires
- Queensland floods
- Auki Primary School fire
- Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust funds for the Commonwealth32
The Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee TrustThomas Koh Chan is 1 of 21 Commonwealth Country Representatives for The Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust, 33 a charity trust which was announced in October 2011 in Perth by UK Prime Minister David Cameron at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, and officially started in the UK on 6 February 2011.34 During 10 February – 23 February 2011, its website mentioned that a Commonwealth Advisory Group was "being established".3536 By at least 22 January 2013, its website listed already 20 Country Representatives,37 which were later mentioned as being one of the advisory bodies of the Trust, among 2 other advisory bodies. The only changes between the current list and the 22 January 2013 list has been the addition of a representative for Jamaica and a change of the representative for Seychelles.33 As of 28 November 2009, the Commonwealth counted 54 member countries,38 after which The Gambia withdrew on 1 or 3 October 2013.3940, leaving 53 members.41
ChivalryThomas Koh Chan received two awards noted by the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood. Both of these orders by the queen of the United Kingdom, were explicitly preceded by advice by Ministers of Solomon Islands.
On 31 December 1988 Thomas Chan received the honour Ordinary Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE)42, which is the second lowest in rank for a total of five ranks in the chivalry of The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire. This rank of award does not permit the use of the title "Sir" before the recipient's name, as this admission is only granted to recipients of one of the highest two ranks. Further more, non-UK citizens who receive honorary knighthoods are not entitled to use the style "Sir" in general.434445 The reason for the award was not specific: "For services to the community".42 The following award to Thomas Chan carried a similarly vague notice, when the queen signified its arrival.
On the "New Year Honours" of 31 December 2004, on the advice of Solomon Islands Ministers, the queen of the United Kingdom, signified her intention of conferring a knighthood upon the following:
- Nathaniel Rahumaea Waena: Ordinary Member of the First Class, or Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Michael and Saint George (GCMG)
- David Sitai: Ordinary Officer of the Civil Division of the Order of the British Empire (OBE)
- John Henry Howden Beverly: Ordinary Member of the Civil Division of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)
- George Cheuk Ping Tong: Ordinary Member of the Civil Division of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)46
It seems to have been difficult to agree on, or to correctly copy the spelling of his name, as Central Chancery of Orders of Knighthood managed to write his name firstly as "Thomas Ko Chan" in the aforementioned document of 198842 and afterwards as "Thomas Kok Chan" in the aforementioned written announcement of 2004.
A source from a later date notes that Thomas Chan introduced himself, anecdotally, plainly as Tommy.48
Criticism on decorations in Solomon Islands – The case of Allan Kemakeza
|To be able to better question the value of decorations such as British chivalry in Solomon Islands, it might be useful to note that e.g. also Allan Kemakeza was given a knighthood by the United Kingdom. Let us remind ourselves of the following excerpt of a multi-authored source, published by the Australian National University:
Sir Allan Kemakeza was the minister [for National Unity, Reconciliation and Peace, from June 2000 – 2001] who was sacked for the corrupt administration of the compensation payments and Snyder Rini was the finance minister [from July 2000 - December 2001] responsible for the corrupt administration of duty remissions.49Professor Clive Moore summarizes some later information on him:
In November 2007, Kemakeza was convicted of demanding money with menace, intimidation and larceny relating to a raid he allegedly ordered on the Honiara law firm Sol Law. He was convicted and served five months in prison in 2008, a period short enough for him to retain his knighthood.50Yet, the United Kingdom deems it meaningful to reward that same Allan a knighthood. On 16 June 2001, the signifying therefor had been already done on the advice of Her Majesty’s Solomon Islands Ministers:
Please note however that I do not find any official statement and exact date of the actual conferring of the knighthood to Allan Kemakeza so far.
The Taiwanese even top the British, by conferring an award to this corrupt politician even later (on 20 December 2005). On 20 December 2005, he received a Special Grand Cordon of the Order of Brilliant Star, by Taiwan's former president Chen Shui-bian (who was sentenced, along with his wife Wu Shu-chen, to life in prison on Friday 11 September 2009 for e.g. stealing and misusing public money from 2000 to 2008; when he was ROC's president52). Below, you can find its official notice in Traditional Chinese or translated into English.
In the Bulletin of the Office of the President, Republic of China (Taiwan) (in Traditional Chinese: 總統府公報), more specifically No. 6666, which was published on the 28th of December in the 94th year of the ROC calendar (28 December 2005 in the Gregorian calendar), the sub-chapter on Medal Awards (in Traditional Chinese: 授予勳章) entails less than one page of information (page 78) and is followed by a chapter entitled Special report, which only entails the following line in the source's table of contents and is also less than one page (page 79) in length:
The President awards a medal ceremony to the Prime Minister of Solomon Islands Allan Kemakeza.The sub-chapter on Medal Awards (on page 78) entails only representations of 2 medal awards:
The source was originally in Traditional Chinese, and I organized a translation here. Some Traditional Chinese characters and specifications were omitted in the translation since including them would be unnecessary to understand the meaning of the source in English.
The source used can be downloaded from the website of the Office of the President, Republic of China (Taiwan).54
20 December 2005
華總二榮字 No. 09400206171
Hereby awards the Order of Brilliant star with Special Grand Cordon to Prime minister of Solomon Islands Allan Kemakeza.
President: Chen Shui-bian
President of the Executive Yuan: Hsieh Chang-ting
Minister of Foreign Affairs: Chen Tang-shan
總統於中華民國 94 年 12 月 21 日中午 12 時在總統府 3 樓大禮堂 頒授索羅門群島總理亞朗‧柯瑪克札爵士閣下(H. E. Sir. Allan Kemakeza)「特種大綬景星勳章」,以表彰其多年來致力強化台、索 兩國邦誼及堅定支持我國參與國際社會等卓越貢獻。柯瑪克札總理亦 呈贈陳總統「薩沃島榮譽最高大酋長頭銜」,以代表索國政府及人民 表達對陳總統在索國國家發展上所給予各項協助之由衷謝忱。典禮結 束後,總統伉儷以午宴款待柯瑪克札總理伉儷及訪問團等一行。
The President awards a medal ceremony to the Prime Minister of Solomon Islands Allan Kemakeza
On midday of the 21st of December 2005, in the big assembly hall on the 3rd floor of the Office of the President, the President awarded a "Special Grand Cordon of the Order of Brilliant Star" to the Prime Minister of Solomon Islands (His Excellency Sir Allan Kemakeza), in recognition of his efforts over the years to strengthen the bilateral nation friendship between the two countries Taiwan and Solomon Islands, and also for his strong support to our country’s participation in the international community and other outstanding contributions. The Prime Minister Kemakeza also respectfully presented an "Savo Island honour of the highest tribal chief in rank" to President Chen, to express sincere gratitude from the government and people of Solomon Islands to President Chen for providing assistance in the national development of the state. After the ceremony, the President and his wife hospitably entertained the Prime Minister Kemakeza, his wife and the whole delegation with a luncheon.
VariaIn February/March 2011, his marital status was noted as married.55 His stature has been described as small.48
To be updated ...
Thomas Koh Chan & Laurie Chan in politics
The 2006 Honiara riots / Solomon Islands general electionIn the context of Solomon Islands general election (2006), Thomas Chan and Laurie Chan have been called the main political players, together with Alex Wang of Iron Bottom Sound Hotel,2 a Hotel in Honiara.
In this context, the Chan's have supported the government of Allan Kemakeza (who was Prime Minister from 17 December 200156 – 18 April 200657), wherein Deputy Prime Minister was Snyder Rini who switched between 3 Minister's positions in that time;58 and subsequently the government of the newly elected Snyder Rini (who was Prime Minister from 18 April 2006 – 4 May 200657).2
When these were still but regular Ministers, they had been already described as corrupt politicians, responsible for corrupt administration: Allan Kemakeza in his position as Minister for National Unity, Reconciliation and Peace (which he manned from June 2000 – 2001)56 and Snyder Rini as Minister for Finance and Treasury (more specifically when he positioned it from July 2000 - December 2001)58:
Sir Allan Kemakeza was the minister who was sacked for the corrupt administration of the compensation payments and Snyder Rini was the finance minister responsible for the corrupt administration of duty remissions.49The main reasons of the Chan's support to these governments have been the tax breaks they received during many years, and wanting to obtain Honiara's third casino license. The construction of suitable buildings for a casino at their hotel had already started. Nevertheless, they have not been allowed a license.2
Snyder Rini was elected Prime Minister in the 2006 general election due to vote-buying support from Chinese business leaders, which was coordinated by Thomas Chan.49 About Thomas Koh Chan, it is written:
In 2006, he gained influence by supporting the political coalition that successfully bid for the election of Prime Minister Snyder Rini, only to be dethroned when other business interests moved their support away from parties in the ruling coalition.8The same source writes, about businesses orchestrating politics in Solomon Islands:
Although it is well known that parties rely on financial backing from business houses that donate prizes and pay for dinners, the sources of such financial support are rarely indicated in the press.8And about Asian business support for the election of Prime Minister Snyder Rini in 2006:
Prior to that election there was a high expectation of a change in leadership and personality away from the People’s Alliance/AIM group. When this did not happen and there were allegations of Chinese business involvement in the victory of Rini, the people’s anger led to the looting and burning of Honiara’s China town.8When the candidature of Snyder Rini (then part of the Association of Independent Members (AIM) and called leading the party in the National Parliament59) for Prime Minister was announced on 16 April, widespread street protests which targeted the Chinatown area were triggered in Honiara. Unfair favoring of Chinese businessmen by Snyder Rini and corruption was asserted by the protesters.57 After the announcement of the election of Snyder Rini as the new prime minister on 18 April by the Governor-General (Nathaniel Rahumaea Waena, 7 July 2004–200960) just after 12PM, tensions rose during 3 hours.2 Numbers rose in the hundreds at Vavaya Ridge outside the Parliament61 where, just after 3PM that day, crowds reportedly shouted: "Chinese money! Chinese money!"62 (other sources state that the rioters chanted 'Waku', which is Solomon Islands Pijin meaning Asian or Chinese,6364; in front of Parliament, reportedly because of the sight of a smiling Allan Kemakeza which accompanied Snyder Rini walking out of Parliament,6364 and while burning down Chinatown6563). Following stone throwing, tear gas was deployed as a reply by 3.22PM66, after which several Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI) vehicles were set alight. When rioting and looting crowds approached Chinatown, via Mendana Avenue, they wanted to attack Thomas Chan's Honiara Hotel:2
The mob wanted to target Chan's Honiara Hotel, because of the family's involvement in politics, but was held off by the increased, mainly Malaitan security and the Christian authority of a force of Taesiu–The Anglican Melanesian Brothers, who exercised a strong mana [i.e. power in both a religious and political sense]672Honiara Hotel and Thomas Chan's son's video shop were not harmed.2
(...) the consequences were devastating for those hotels that accomodated politicians, premises of businesses that were associated with certain political parties, and offices of those seen to be supporting such parties. The fear of such actions is sufficient for party financiers to insist on anonimity, but the lack of transparency clearly damages the relationship between party politics and democracy in Solomon Islands.8
Party representationParty representation (number of secured seats per party) following the 5 April 2006 general elections are presented below. An increased number of independent members securing seats during elections was observed. No political party arose with a clear majority, which is considered usual for Solomon Islands.8
Parliamentary functions – Comparison with Allan Kemakeza & Snyder RiniFor general understanding, and since Thomas Chan and Laurie Chan have been described in literature as supporting both Allan Kemakeza and Snyder Rini, and such support has been linked to riots among the general public, below a comparing overview of their parliamentary functions will be given:
|Date of general elections|
22 Feb 198968
|26 May 199370||6 Aug 199757|
5 Dec 200171
5 Apr 200657
4 Aug 201075
19 Nov 201479
Thomas Koh Chan
|56||56||56||56||5686||[Spe of Nat Par]86|
... before "entering Parliament"
|Fin & Tre58||58||58||Fin & Tre899091|
- 1. a. b. c. ▸ http://www.abc.net.a..., Sean Dorney, Snyder Rini new Solomon Islands PM, "(...) But since then, the president of the party, Sir Thomas Chan, who's the father of the Foreign Minister, Laurie Chan, has done extremely well helping Mr Rini build a coalition (...)", ABC News: The World Today [Year: 2006], 18/4/2006, at 12/11/2015
- 2. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. ▸ http://press.anu.edu..., Clive Moore, "No more walkabout long Chinatown: Asian involvement in the economic and political process", in: Sinclair Dinnen & Stewart Firth (Eds.), Politics and State Building in Solomon Islands, Canberra: ANU E Press, Asia Pacific Press, 2008, pp. 64–95, ISBN: 978-1-921-31366-0
- 3. a. b. c. ▸ http://www.parliamen..., Hon. Thomas Koh Chan, National Parliament of Solomon Islands, 22/4/2008, at 18/11/2015
- 4. a. b. ▸ http://www.solomons...., MAELANGA WITNESSES CHEQUE HANDOVER TO QUEENSLAND FLOOD VICTIMS, The Embassy of Solomon Islands to Taiwan, 27/3/2011, at 18/11/2015
- 5. a. b. c. ▸ http://documents.wor... / http://documents.wor... / http://documents.wor..., Tarcisius Tara Kabutaulaka, Pacific Islands Stakeholder Participation in Development: Solomon Islands (Id: 18824), Pacific Islands Discussion Paper Series (Vol. 6), A Report for the World Bank (Funded by the Government of Australia under the AusAID/World Bank Pacific Facility), 9/1998, at 27/8/2016.
- 6. ▸ http://www.abc.net.a..., Sean Dorney, Solomon Islanders vote for change, "(...) Two Chinese naturalised Solomon Island citizens who were Ministers, Moon Pin Quan [phonetic] and Tommy Chan [phonetic] have both lost their seats (...)", Radio National & ABC Local Radio: PM [Year: 2001], 7/12/2001, at 12/11/2015
- 7. ▸ http://www.ipu.org/p..., SOLOMON ISLANDS: parliamentary elections National Parliament, 1997, Inter-Parliamentary Union, 11/1/2007, at 13/11/2015
- 8. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. ▸ https://books.google..., Gordon Leua Nanau, "How Political Parties Do and Do Not Contribute to Democratic Governance in the Solomon Islands", in: Kay Lawson (Ed.), Political Parties and Democracy [Luc Sindjoun & Marian Simms & Kay Lawson (Volume Eds.),Volume IV: Africa and Oceania], pp. 201-224, 7/2010.
- 9. ▸ http://www.parliamen..., About Us, National Parliament of Solomon Islands, at 18/11/2015
- 10. a. b. c. ▸ https://books.google..., Tarcisius Tara Kabutaulaka, "Parties, Constitutional Engineering and Governance in the Solomon Islands" [Chapter 6], in: Political Parties in the Pacific Islands (Roland Rich & Luke Hambly & Michael G. Morgan (Eds.), Canberra, The Australian National University: ANU E Press [Previously published by Pandanus Books, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies], 2008 [First edition: 2006], ISBN (pdf): 9781921313769, ISBN (pbk): 9781921313752, pp. 103-116
- 11. ▸ http://www.parliamen..., Hon. Manasseh D. Sogavare, National Parliament of Solomon Islands, at 12/11/2015
- 12. ▸ http://www.merriam-w..., Sine Die | Definition of sine die by Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, 2015
- 13. a. b. c. ▸ http://www.solomonst..., Atkin George, Six parties process application, Solomon Star News, 26/9/2014, at 13/11/2015
- 14. ▸ http://www.radionz.c..., Solomons PM kicked out of his party - report, Radio New Zealand, 10 Novemer 2016.
- 15. ▸ http://www.solomonti..., Sogavare Sacked From His Party, Solomon Times Online, 10 November 2016.
- 16. ▸ http://www.solomonst..., Elliot Dawea, GOVT INTACT, Solomon Star, 14 November 2016.
- 17. ▸ http://www.solomonst..., Ednal Palmer, AG: Termination of PM invalid, Solomon Star, 16 November 2016.
- 18. ▸ http://www.solomonst..., NEW BID, Solomon Star, 25 November 2016.
- 19. ▸ http://theislandsun...., Alfred Sasako, $40 million promised in kickback is a lie, says Sir Thomas Chan, 23 November 2016.
- 20. a. b. c. d. e. ▸ http://documents.wor... / http://documents.wor... / http://documents.wor..., Tarcisius Tara Kabutaulaka, Pacific Islands Stakeholder Participation in Development: Solomon Islands (Id: 18824), Pacific Islands Discussion Paper Series (Vol. 6), A Report for the World Bank (Funded by the Government of Australia under the AusAID/World Bank Pacific Facility), 9/1998 , at 1/11/2015
- 21. ▸ http://www.solomonen..., Clive Moore, Concept: Tourism, Solomon Islands Historical Encyclopaedia 1893–1978, 8/7/2013, at 13/11/2015
- 22. ▸ http://repository.us..., Ngaire Douglas, Towards a history of tourism in Solomon Islands: The first instalment, The Journal of Pacific Studies [Volume: 26 (nos. 1 & 2)], The University of the South Pacific, 2004, pp. 29-50 at 13/11/2015
- 23. ▸ https://books.google..., Judith A. Bennett, "From Guadalcanal to Malaita: Solmac and Kayuken", in: Pacific Forest: A History of Resource Control and Contest in Solomon Islands, c. 1800-1997, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers (First published by Cambrdige: The White Horse Press, in 2000), 2000, ISBN: 90-04-11960-4, p. 230
- 24. ▸ https://books.google..., David Stanley (edited by Asha Johnson), Pacific Handbook, Avaion Travel Publishing, 2000, p. 869.
On this address, another shipping company was listed as well: Pacific Queen Shipping.
▸ http://www.pacificbu..., Pacific Queen Shipping, Honiara, Solomon Islands, Pacific Business Pages, at 13/11/2015
- 25. ▸ http://www.pacificbu..., Wings Shipping, Honiara, Solomon Islands, Pacific Business Pages, at 13/11/2015
- 26. ▸ http://www.abyssalpl..., Jana Kubíčková, When Ocean is Your Highway: Travelling in the Solomon Islands, Journeys to Abyssal Plains, 22/10/2015, at 13 November 2015
- 27. a. b. ▸ http://www.op.org.au..., Fr Martin Wallace, Earthquake and Tsuami hit Solomon Islands - April 3, 2007, Dominican Province of the Assumption, at 19/11/2015.
- 28. ▸ https://www.flickr.c..., Solomon Star No. 6145 (Friday 25 March 2016), p. 11
- 29. ▸ David Stanley, https://books.google..., South Pacific Handbook [Fifth edition), Chico, California: Moon Publications, Inc. [First edition: July 1979], 1993, ISBN: 0-918373-99-9, p. 704, at 13/11/2015
- 30. a. b. As can be found on an information plaque on the right of the hotel's reception, at 19/11/2015.
- 31. ▸ http://reliefweb.int..., Solomon Islands: Flash Floods - Apr 2014, ReliefWeb, at 19/11/2015
- 32. a. b. ▸ http://www.solomonst..., Big fundraising tonight for flood victims, Solomon Star News, 11/4/2015, at 19/11/2015
- 33. a. b. ▸ http://jubileetribut..., Advisors, The Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust, at 19/11/2015
- 34. ▸ https://web.archive.... [Archived at 8/2/2011], Prime Minister [of Australia] [Julia Gillard], The Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, at 19/11/2015
- 35. ▸ https://web.archive.... [Archived at 10/2/2011], The Trust, The Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust, at 19/11/2015
- 36. ▸ https://web.archive.... [Archived at 23/2/2011], The Trust, The Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust, at 19/11/2015
- 37. ▸ https://web.archive.... [Archived at 22/1/2013], The Trust Across the Commonwealth, The Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust, at 19/11/2015
- 38. ▸ http://thecommonweal..., Rwanda, The Commonwealth, at 19/11/2015
- 39. ▸ http://www.theguardi..., Afua Hirsch [dicrcorrespondent], Gambia quits the Commonwealth, The Guardian, 3/10/2015, at 19/11/2015
- 40. ▸ http://thecommonweal..., Kamalesh Sharma, Statement by Commonwealth Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma on The Gambia, The Commonwealth, at 19/11/2015
- 41. ▸ http://www.royal.gov..., Commonwealth Members, The British Monarchy [The Royal Household © Crown Copyright], at 19/11/2015
- 42. a. b. c. ▸ https://www.thegazet..., EIGHT SUPPLEMENT TO The London Gazette of Friday of Friday, 30th December 1988 [No. 51585] [SOLOMON ISLANDS]  [Published by Authority] [Registered as a Newspaper], London: Printed and published by Her Majesty's Stationary Office [PRINTED IN ENGLAND], 1988, [ISBN: 0-11-661585-0] [ISSN: 0374-3721]
- 43. ▸ http://www.britishar..., Gallery No 38 - Medals: British Medals - 34 Images, British Armed Forces & National Service, [Modified: 22/4/2015], at 19/11/2015
- 44. ▸ http://www.royal.gov..., Knighthoods, The British Monarchy, [The Royal Household © Crown Copyright], at 19/11/2015
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- 46. ▸ https://www.thegazet..., The London Gazette of Thursday 30 December 2004: Supplement No. 5: New Year Honours–Solomon Islands [N37] [Number 57513] [Registered as a newspaper] [Published by Authority] [Established 1665], 31 December 2004, at 19/11/2015
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- 59. ▸ http://www.abc.net.a..., Sean Dorney, Snyder Rini new Solomon Islands PM, "(...) He leads a group in Parliament called the Association of Independent Members, AIM, and that is the largest group that did, well, it did the best in the elections earlier this month. They ended up with nine of the 50 seats. (...)", ABC News: The World Today [Year: 2006], 18/4/2006, at 12/11/2015
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- 62. ▸ http://www.abc.net.a..., Sean Dorney, Snyder Rini new Solomon Islands PM, "(...) In fact, when Mr Rini's name was announced by the Governor-General there were crowds at the Parliament who screamed out: "Chinese money! Chinese money!", alleging that some of the people they thought who were going to vote for the former Opposition, which yesterday was thinking it had a chance of winning, that they were bought overnight and switched sides. (...)", ABC News: The World Today [Year: 2006], 18/4/2006, at 12/11/2015
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- 66. This time was reported by the police. Information from Paul Roughan on 18 April 2006.
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- 75. ▸ http://www.parliamen..., [SIR] FRANK OFAGIORO KABUI [Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Cross of the Order of Solomon Islands, Officer of the Most Distinguished Order of the British Empire, Governor-General, and Commander-In-Chief of Solomon Islands, EXTRAORDINARY GAZETTE, Solomon Islands Gazette, Honiara, Solomon Islands [Printed under the authority of the Solomon Islands Government] [Pinted by Solomon Islands Printers Limited], NO. 90, 16/8/2010, at 26/12/2015
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- 77. ▸ http://www.parliamen..., 7th Meeting [Minutes of Proceedings of the 9th Parliament], National Parliament of Solomon Islands, at 12/11/2015
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- 82. a. b. c. ▸ http://www.parliamen..., Members of the Seventh Parliament, National Parliament of Solomon Islands, at 13/11/2015
- 83. a. b. ▸ http://www.parliamen..., Hon. Laurie Chan, National Parliament of Solomon Islands, at 18/11/2015
- 84. ▸ http://www.parliamen..., Members of the Fourth Parliament, National Parliament of Solomon Islands, at 13/11/2015
- 85. ▸ http://www.parliamen..., Members of the Fifth Parliament, National Parliament of Solomon Islands, at 13/11/2015
- 86. a. b. ▸ http://www.parliamen..., BIOGRAPHY OF SIR. ALLAN KEMAKEZA, National Parliament of Solomon Islands, at 18/11/2015
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- 89. ▸ http://www.radionz.c..., Solomon Islands ministers sworn in, Radio New Zealand, updated 23/12/2014, at 10/1/2016
- 90. ▸ http://www.radionz.c..., Final Solomons ministers named, Radio New Zealand, updated 23/12/2014, at 10/1/2016
- 91. The listings of the "Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments" of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), listed Snyder Rini; from at least 18 March 2015 (last updated 28 Jan 2015) until at least 10 January 2016 (last updated 2 Nov 2015) as "Minister of Finance & Development Planning" instead. I have inquired them about why they have written this title, concurrently with the title "Minister of Finance and Treasury" which newspapers had used; and am waiting for a reply.
▸ https://web.archive...., Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Government, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), [archived at 18/3/2015] (last updated 28/1/2015), at 10/1/2016
▸ https://www.cia.gov/..., Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Government, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 10/1/2016 (last updated 2/11/2015)