Sexual orientation [LGBTQ+] and the draft of the new Solomon Islands Constitution

Last modified: 
27/8/2016

The latest draft of the new Solomon Islands constitution specifically excludes "sexual orientation" from nondiscrimination protections: The government in every sphere, and every organ of government, must not discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds, including birth, age, ethnicity, social origin, race, colour, language, religion, conscience, belief or opinion, culture, sex, pregnancy, marital status, disability, social status or economic status. In this subsection, "sex" is not to be interpreted as including sexual orientation.1

Please visit the petitions
by clicking on the platform(s) of your choice

at  change. org



Stop sexual orientation discrimination in forthcoming Solomon Islands Constitution!


at  AVAAZ . ORG



Stop sexual orientation discrimination in forthcoming Solomon Islands Constitution!

You can now help by signing and/or sharing via arguably the two most extensive petition communities globally. Thanks!


Reception and gaining support!

  • 11 February 2016: Solomon Islands Information Network (SIIN) accepted my submission of a notification of this article (and its International English 'Press' introduction, which can be found below) on 11 February 2016.

    SIIN is "an email network of scholars interested in the Solomon Islands".2 Its publications are picked up by the Australian National University (ANU) and may be distributed further. More information about SIIN can be found on the website of The University of Queensland. One can join the network if one wishes to accept its rules.

  • 13 February 2016: Thank you very much to my partner Chung-Yi Lan to arduously distribute the petition among her friends and acquaintances.

  • 17 February 2016: I notified the article, and its petitions on 16 February 2016 to my Norwegian friend and art critic Bjørn Hatterud. The next day, he replied to me that he would send the information to a reputable and well-recognized Norwegian professor in the field, as well as to LLH, which is the Norwegian LGBT Association. See below for exciting developments and good news following Bjørn's kind actions!

  • 23 February 2016:
    • On 22 February 2016, I contacted Larry Gross, jointly with other academics who were involved in a PhD defense in Belgium on LGBTQ, which I had witnessed. Larry Gross, who "helped found the field of gay and lesbian studies"3, and is a professor at the University of Southern California, replied to me the next day: Thank you for bringing this to our attention. I will spread the word about this to various lists and organizations; I hope this will lead to some help in addressing this serious problem! The following day, Larry replied to me saying that he had forwarded the message to Rex Wockner, who has been facilitating communication as a very experienced reporter in the field. Thank you very much!

    • Ryan Kaminski, Program Manager of Human Rights and Special Initiatives at the United Nations, raised awareness of the petition:
    • Extremely exciting developments on Facebook!
      • Haus of Khameleon, a Pacific Transgender Equality Movement, shared the petition on Facebook

        The latest draft of the new Constitution of the Solomon Islands explicitly allows for “discrimination (and for advocacy...

        Posted by Haus of Khameleon on Tuesday, 23 February 2016
      • Kim Vance, the Executive Director and co-founder of ARC International, replied to that Facebook message: Does anyone work with any groups in the Solomon Islands? We are thinking about involving one of the UN special Experts as they intervene around pending legislation. Does PSDN [Pacific Sexual Diversity Network] or anyone else want to work with us to write a letter?
      • Haus of Khameleon replied to Kim Vance: We are in the process of drafting our submission to the Cabinet and the Constituent Assembly of the Solomon Islands. Yeah, let's write a joint submission and get the LGBT Pacific groups, CSO's [Civil Society Organisations] and allies to sign on and endorse.
      • The Facebook post was also shared by the LGBTQ-Palau.

        Thank you so much all for your active spirit! It would truly be a dream come true if there would be a UN special Expert sent out for this matter.

    • Regional support!
      • Dédé Oetomo, the founder of the first organization for LGBT rights (which was founded on 1 August 1987, and is now named "GAYa NUSANTARA"4) in Indonesia, signed the petition! Thank you Dédé. The petition also got shared on the Twitter channel of the organization:
      • Signed support by Gillio 'Gigi' Baxter, who plays the leading gay character in Vanuatu's "Love Patrol" television series, since 2009. Thank you Gigi!
      • Sulique Waqa, the Fiji-based transgender activist, signed the petition, and also shared Haus of Khameleon's Facebook message on ILGA-OCEANIA's Facebook, and called on others to sign the petition! Thank you Sulique.
      • APCOM, the Asian / Pacific transgender & MSM organization, shared the petition:

        The LGBT citizens' rights of Solomon Islands might be ignored but you can help changing it.

        Posted by APCOM on Monday, 22 February 2016

    • It would be an honour to get in touch with ARC International!
      • Bjørn Hatterud brought good news: LLH (the Norwegian LGBTQ-association) asked me if you wanted to be connected to ARC International. They have meetings etc on the LGBTQ situation in your region. If you are interested LLH will connect you. They will also use your article in educating members of their international political fraction. I am looking forward to contact with ARC International! Thank you my Norwegian friend, and thank you LLH!

    • First UK signature!
      • Transgender Kay Jane Browning, who is campaigning for diversity, up until Brittain's Houses of Parliament, signed the petition! Thank you Kay!

  • 24 February 2016:
    • Professor Arthur S. Leonard of the New York Law School signed the petition. Professor Leonard is the creator, Editor and Chief Writer of LGBT Law Notes, and a very active scholar in the field of Lesbian and Gay Studies and LGBT. Thank you Arthur!

    • Toiko Tõnisson Kleppe, the Fiji-based Human Rights Officer at OHCHR signed the petition! Thank you Toiko!

  • 25 February 2016: Reverand Susan J. Hemmer, of the Unitarian Universalist Church, signed the petition! I met Susan on the 23rd of February, when I was campaigning for sexual orientation rights in Solomon Islands, at the port in the capital Honiara, because a cruise ship (Seabourn Odyssey) was shipping out (and back again) some passengers for less than a day. I gave her the URL to this article, and it is a pleasure to know that she became the first clergy to have signed the petition. Further more, she is a reverend who was ashore at the Solomon Islands: a break-through for the country! Susan explained to me that, in her church (Treasure Coast Unitarian Church), she had just started marrying same-gender couples for free, in honor of the marriage equality in Florida! Thank you Susan!

  • 26 February 2016:
    • The indignation has got through to ILGA's newsletter "LGBulleTIn #37 -The week in LGBTI news [19-25 February 2016]": There is mounting concern about the latest draft of the Solomon Islands’ new constitution, which would reportedly explicitly exclude sexual orientation from the grounds of discrimination.
    • Mark E. Wojcik, law professor and founder of the Chicago Bar Association’s Committee on Legal Rights of Lesbians and Gay Men, signed the petition. Thank you Mark!

    • Douglas Sanders, emeritus professor in Law at Canada's University of British Columbia and Thailand's Chulalongkorn University; who is known as a spokesmen of international human rights law and lesbian and gay rights; signed the petition. Thank you Douglas!

  • 3 March 2016:
    • Gerald Soworka, who holds the Solomon Islands blog Pineapple Post signed the petition. Gerald would love to write an article on LGBTI in the Solomons on his blog. I'm looking forward to that! Thank you Gerald!

    • I was informed, via journalist Rex Wockner, about the inaugural ILGA Oceania Human Rights and Health Conference 09-11 March 2016 at the Otago University Medical School. ILGA is an organization with UN status, and the goal of this inaugural Oceania conference is to: [...] re-ignite the fires of the LGBTI community on issues of Human Rights and Health in the states of Papua New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, the South Pacific, Melanesia and the Micronesian Islands. I contacted the organization, to address the issue of this article and its petitions. I offered to dial in to the conference via a Skype call so that I could perhaps give a free update on the developments. This organization said this will be considered when the scholars arrive. If any member of a sexual minority group on Solomon Islands would like to attend this conference (and wishes to speak up afterwards at home, and advance the cause): then please contact me to make that happen!

    • Trying to get support from institutions and government delegations in Solomon Islands: I will update what happened, when I have time
      • I went to the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC).
      • I went to the delegation of the European Union.
      • I went to the joint country office of the United Nations.

Letter delivered at the weeklong Workshop from 29 February—4 March 2016

The following is an article from the Solomon Islands newspaper Solomon Star No. 6120, of Tuesday 1 March, 2016; on page 4. Please allow me to take the liberty to reproduce it in full below, since it announced the weeklong Workshop from 29 February—4 March 2016: Workshop on 2014 Draft Federal Constitution
PERMANENT Secretaries and Under Secretaries of the various Government Ministries are currently undergoing a workshop as part of the Public Awareness on the 2nd 2014 Draft Federal Constitution of Solomon Islands. The Constitutional Reform Unit (CRU) is organising it at the Heritage Park Hotel. CRU, DCC Government's Fundamental Reform Unit (FRU) and Constitutional Congress, led by the Honiara City team have collaborated to carry out this awareness activity with these government officials. The awareness program started yesterday - Monday 29th February, with FRU Policy Secretary Warren Paia's presentation titled "From Unitary to Federalism". The turnout from the heads of the Ministries was promising as it shows their commitment to understanding the Federal system being proposed and endorsed by all nine Provinces in Solomon Islands last year. The weeklong program will also have technical explanations from CRU's Consultant Lawyer Reginald Teutao on the 2nd 2014 Draft. This will be the opportunity that the PSs and USs will have to get legal clarifications on the contents of the Draft. The awareness meeting will end on Friday 4th March 2016.
I only noticed this newspaper article on 2 March, in the early morning, since I was busy the whole of 1 March attending and capturing Sir Peter Kenilorea's state and church's funeral. The following is a letter which I distributed on 2 March 2016. Since I was not permitted to enter the meeting and speech this, I managed to deliver 9 printed copies of this letter:
  • One to the Island Sun newspaper and one to the Solomon Star newspaper
  • One to the Vice Chair of CC & EPAC: Joseph Hute
  • One to the Chair Lady of CC & EPAC: Jennie Toehaika
  • One to the Consultant Lawyer Reginald Teutao,
  • And to other attendants such as (Pernant / Under) Secretaries of the government.

Letter delivered at the workshop

Sexual orientation and the draft of the new Solomon Islands Constitution
Delivered at the weeklong workshop on the Draft Federal Constitution, at Heritage Park, on Wednesday 2 March 2016

Dear Permanent Secretaries of the government,

Dear Under Secretaries of the government,

Dear Constitutional Reform Unit,

Dear Constitutional Congress,

Dear Consultant Lawyer Reginald Teutao,
and dear distinguished attendants.

I am extremely grateful, as a man of foreign residence and ethnicity, for the opportunity which I have been given to present a call for urgent action to bring about change in the final days of the long and important Constitutional Reform which you are part of.

Please allow me to bring your attention to the proposed Constitution, as it is currently drafted; which is the purpose of our gathering.

In Chapter 1 of the 2nd 2014 Draft of the Constitution, in the second sentence of that Chapter, in the second sentence thus of the Constitution, after the preamble; it is written ... I quote: "The people of Solomon Islands establish the federal Democratic Republic of Solomon Islands as a sovereign state, founded on the principles of [...] [I omit a part of the sentence to go the relevant listed wordings] respect for the obligations of Solomon Islands under international law [...] [and the list goes on]" Founded on the principles of respect for the obligations of the country under international law.

At the same time, as I have pointed out in my recent 2016 article "Sexual orientation and the draft of the new Solomon Islands Constitution", the 2nd 2014 Draft of the Constitution explicitly allows for “discrimination (and for advocacy of hatred, and for incitement to cause harm) on the basis of sexual orientation".

This constitution is therefor inherently contradictory.5 The allowance of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation is … I quote the recent 2016 report published by the Equal Rights Trust in partnership with The Secretariat of the Pacific Community: […] completely contrary to international human rights law, which has long recognised sexual orientation as a protected characteristic. Jointly with my article, I have published an on-line petition. As of date, I have received 48 prominent signatures across 2 petition platforms.

While that number may sound like negligible to some, to me: the hopes of change that they stand for are great.

These signatures are of the hands of regional and international sexual minority organizations; famous persons or activists in sexual minority culture; a founder of the field of gay and lesbian studies; professors of law or communication; academic or institutional experts on LGBT or human rights; a reverend who has visited the country and is of the Unitarian Universalist Church (a church which may hold up to 50,000 members in Solomon Islands); the Human Rights Officer of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in Fiji, and many others who world-wide and publicly have shown there indignation about the discrimination and raise their voice for change in the respected Democratic Republic.

I would like to humbly ask ourselves to ask a question. How can it be that Solomon Islands criminalizes and discriminates against sexual minorities? The truth is that this criminalization arose in a time when many mistakes took place, which we call colonization. I would like to apologise sincerely on behalf of my ethnic group for the atrocities which we have committed against indigenous Solomon Islanders. My ethnic group has discriminated against, surpressed, blackbirded, enslaved, and generally hurt lovely people of the country. Instead of the love present on Solomon Islands, the colonizers had installed hatred and discrimination. We have discriminated against your people in general, not only; but also; against sexual minorities.

That is the answer to how this terrible mistake can be. But, even though there is apparently a way in which it can be; it can not be. It can not be, because Solomon Islanders are of the most respectful and considerate citizens of the world, who choose their words and thoughts carefully. It can not be, because Solomon Islanders strive for peace, unity and reconciliation. It can not be because all religions on Solomon Islands, whether prominent or in minority, share the same inter-religious values such as peacefulness, respect, sympathy, consideration of the disadvantaged. It can not be because peaceful churches world-wide have started an innovation in Christianity, to recognize and accept sexual minorities as equals, without any dicrimination. It can not be because people of Solomon Islands need to feel and be considered of equal moral value, and must be entitled to equal freedom, whatever their differences may be. It can not be, because Christianity is not repeating what others have dictated before. Repeating is empty. It is not to repeat what colonizers have installed here. Christianity is intro-spection. Intro-spection and dialogue on what is the most peaceful way to live together. To live together, with equals and others. We must not mistake values, the core of a religion, with colonized law. I think, to read Søren Aabye Kierkegaard, the Christian theologian and philosopher, is vital for this matter. However, maybe he must not be read, because churches here already know what peace is, what living together is, what not hating your neighbours is.

Dear ladies and gentlemen, some of your people call me boss at times. On behalf of my ethnic group, I feel ashamed. I bow my head. I do not deserve such a title. It is us who have committed the historical error of criminalizing homosexuality, of discriminating against sexual minorities. Listen to the peaceful call and innovation in your churches. You can do better than we have done. Your country can go beyond, move on, and can correct our mistakes. It is you who can change the way which the nation will be heading.

Can there be lessons learned from a discriminatory past? I thank you for your attention.

Vincent Verheyen, 2 March 2016
To bring about positive peaceful change in the country, do certainly NOT count on Consultant Lawyer Reginald Teutao. He is a man as closed as can be, and does not see the importance of dialogue. As soon as he saw the words "sexual orientation" in the letter which I presented to him, he said: [...] We are very confident about that [...] It's our kastom [...] We will not change that [...] When I told him that the 1st 2009 version of the draft actually was completely contradictory with the current draft, on this issue; he said: [...] That was still a document in progress [...] To bring about positive peaceful change in the country, one MIGHT talk to the Chair Lady of CC & EPAC: Jennie Toehaika. I am very grateful for her short chat after the meeting. However, she kept referring to the international experts (Philip A. Knight & Yash Pal Ghai & Ronald Lampman Watts), avoiding to take up her own responsibility. I did not get a reply from any of these experts currently overseas.

To bring about positive peaceful change in the country, one MUST talk to the Vice Chair of CC & EPAC: Joseph Hute. This man has understood Bildung. This man is an enlightened educated Solomon Islander, and highly knowledgeable. This man understands that it is sad to discriminate just because people love eachother. This person is a man who is liberal, and dares to open his mouth for peace. He holds no taboos. He is the archetype of a pedagogical teacher. If the United Nations could send out an expert, please refer to him.

For the love in Solomon Islands, I hope that this article might travel around the globe. Therefor, a 'Press' introduction can be found below, in multiple languages. It is not an abstract of academic standards that covers the whole article, but contains some anecdotes maybe more suitable for external media articles (some references are included in the 'International English' version):


新聞引言

筆者,一位二十三歲歐洲人(比利時公民,於2015年10 月到達索羅門群島,在此之前從未聽說過索羅門群島), 於2016年2月4日開始鍵入 (線上)尚未公佈在網際網路上的索羅門群島憲法的最新草案,並在前第二十頁中,筆者注意到有明確允許基於性傾向的歧視(以及宣揚仇恨和煽動傷害行為)。

據筆者所知,至目前為止筆者僅是第二位對此基於性傾向的特定草案公開發表批評草案內的歧視措辭者,並是第一位首次公開發表指責憲法 草案內中允許性傾向歧視的仇恨宣傳及煽動傷害行為。

此憲法草案公布於2014年5月6日,並且在2015年11月前,已有±600索羅門群島人接觸到此憲法草案。

如需更完整的引言,請參見英語 ('International English'),荷蘭語 ('Nederlands') 或法語 ('Français')。

新闻引言

笔者,一位二十三岁欧洲人(比利时公民,于2015年10月到达所罗门群岛,在此之前从未听说过所罗门群岛),于2016年2月4日开始(线上)键入尚未公布在互联网上的所罗门群岛宪法的最新草案,并在前二十页中,笔者注意到有明确允许基于性倾向的歧视(以及宣扬仇恨和煽动伤害行为)。

据笔者所知,至目前为止笔者仅是第二位对此基于性倾向的特定草案公开发表批评草案内的歧视措辞者,并是第一位首次公开发表指责宪法草案内中允许性倾向歧视的仇恨宣传及煽动伤害行为。

此宪法草案公布于2014年5月6日,并且在2015年11月前,已有±600索罗门群岛人接触到此宪法草案。

如需更完整的引言,请参见英语 ('International English'),荷兰语 ('Nederlands') 或法语 ('Français')。

Introductie voor de pers

De auteur, een 23-jarige Europeaan (en Belgisch staatsburger die nog nooit had gehoord van de Solomon Eilanden tot kort voor hij daar aankwam in october 2015) begon de laatste conceptversie van de Constitutie van Solomon Eilanden (on-line) uit te typen, op 4 februari 2016, aangezien die nog niet beschikbaar was op het internet. Diezelfde dag, in de eerste 20 pagina's, bemerkte de auteur de expliciete toelating van discriminatie (en van aanzet tot haat, en van aanmoediging tot leed) op grond van sexuele orientatie.

Hier, heeft de auteur slechts de tweede gepubliceerde kritiek op deze discriminerende verwoordingen in die specifieke conceptversie geuit (zoverre de auteur daarvan op de hoogte is, verscheen de eerste pas in een andere publication in 2016) sinds de ±2 jaar dat die conceptversie is goedgekeurd door een Gezamenlijke Plenaire Sessie van het Constitutioneel Congres en Eminente Personen AdviesRaad in april 2014 na 7 weken plenaire bijeenkomst, gegidsd door Philip A. Knight en professoren Yash Pal Ghai & Ronald Lampman Watts. Vervolgens was de specifieke conceptversie gefinaliseerd door de Constitutionele HervormingsEenheid en professioneel opgemaakt door Philip A. Knight, waardoor het de eerste professioneel opgemaakte conceptversie van de voorgestelde Federale Constitutie (een voorstel dat ontstond in 2004) werd.

Dit onderhavig artikel is het eerste gepubliceerde document (in zoverre de auteur daarvan op de hoogte is), dat de aanzet tot haat, en aanmoediging tot leed op grond van sexuele orientatie specifiek observeert en bekritiseert. Deze zijn ook toegelaten volgens deze discriminerende Constitutionele conceptversie. Het moet worden opgemerkt dat, in Solomon Eilanden, de Constitutie "het enige wettelijke instrument is dat discriminatie verbiedt".

Die Constitutionele conceptversie werd gepubliceerd op 6 mei 2014, en is gratis beschikbaar in druk via de Constitutionele HervormingsEenheid. Voor october 2015 was ze, door Provinciale BewustmakingsProgrammas, reeds bekendgemaakt aan ±500 Solomon Eilanders (waaronder leden van het parlement), waarbij ze schijnbaar geen gepubliceerde specifieke kritiek kreeg (uitgezonderd over het gebrek aan vermeldingen over vrouwenleiderschap). In October 2015 werd een verdere bewustmakings-consultatie gehouden in Fiji met 50 "studenten van de Universiteit van de Zuidelijke Grote Oceaan en de Nationale Universiteit Fiji, en Solomon Eilanders die belangrijke posities in verschillende academische instituten en regionale organisaties in Suva bemannen", waaronder doctoraatsstudenten. Vervolgens was ze ook unaniem goedgekeurd door 50 laatste of derdejaars rechtenstudenten van de Universiteit van de Zuidelijke Grote Oceaan in Vanuatu, ook in october 2015.

Introduction for the press

The author, a 23-year old European (and Belgian citizen who had never heard of Solomon Islands up until recently before arriving there in October 2015) started keying in (on-line) the latest draft of the Constitution of Solomon Islands, on 4 February 2016, as it was not yet available on the internet. That same day, within the first 20 pages6, the author noticed the explicit allowance of discrimination (and of advocacy of hatred, and of incitement to cause harm) on the basis of sexual orientation.

Here, the author expressed only the second published criticism towards the discriminating wordings in that specific draft (as far as the author is aware, the first one only appeared in another 2016 publication) since the ±2 years that the draft had been endorsed by a Joint Plenary of Constitutional Congress (CC) and Eminent Persons Advisory Council (EPAC) in April 2014 after 7 weeks of plenary, guided by Philip A. Knight and professors Yash Pal Ghai & Ronald Lampman Watts.7 The specific daft was then finalized by the Constitutional Reform Unit (CRU), and professionally drafted by Phillip A. Knight, to become the first professionally drafted version of the proposed Federal Constitution (a proposal which came into existence in 2004).8

This current article is the first published document (as far as the author is aware) which specifically observes and criticizes the advocacy of hatred, and of incitement to cause harm on grounds of sexual orientation, as is also allowed for by this discriminating Constitutional draft. It has to be noted that, in Solomon Islands, the Constitution is "the only legal instrument prohibiting discrimination".9

That Constitutional draft was published on 6 May 2014, and is freely available in print from the Constitutional Reform Unit (CRU). Before October 2015, it was already made aware through Provincial Awareness Programs to ±500 Solomon Islanders (including Members of Parliament), receiving seemingly no published specific criticism (other than towards the lack of addressing women's leadership). In October 2015, an additional awareness consultation was held in Fiji for 50 "students from [the University of the South Pacific (USP)] and Fiji National University, and Solomon Islands nationals serving in key positions in various academic institutions and regional organizations in Suva", including PhD students.1011 Subsequently, it was also unanimously endorsed by 50 final or 3rd year law students of the University of the South Pacific (USP) in Vanuatu, also in October 2015.12

Introduction fo media

Author stat writim na letest Draft blong Constitution blong Solomon Islands (inside lo internet), lo numba 4 lo Februari 2016. Lo sem de, time hem writim, hem noticim dat inside lo fest 20 page blong draft ia, oketa alawem discrimination base lo sexual orientation.

Lo sa ve blong hem, hem onli writim second publish criticism aboutem oketa discrimination words inside lo Draft ia. But den, hem sa ve dat lo disfalla Draft oketa allowem na fridom fo advocation fo hate and motif fo cosim trabol base lo sexual orientation, and hem fest wan fo writim out fo tallem public dat hem no agree.

Befo Novemba 2015, about 600 falla Solomon Islanders na oketa alredy save finis lo disfalla Draft blong Constitution, wea oketa writim cam lo numba 6 lo Mei 2014. Fo moa introduction, checkim English veson, Dutch veson or French veson.

Introduction pour la presse

L'auteur, un Européan de 23 ans (et citoyen de la Belgique qui avais jamais entendu parler des Îles Salomon jusqu'à récemment avant arriver là en octobre 2015) commençait de taper (en-ligne) le dernier projet de la Constitution des Îles Salomon, le 4 avril 2016, car ce projet n'était pas encore disponible en ligne. Ce jour même, au cours des 20 premières pages, l'auteur remarquait la permission explicite de la discrimination (et de l'appel à la haine, et de l'incitation de nuire) sur la base de l'orientation sexuelle.

Ici, l'auteur a exprimé seulement la deuxième critique publiée envers les formulations discriminatoires dans ce projet spécifique (dans la mesure de des connaissances de l'auteur, la première apparait seulement dans un autre publication de 2016) depuis les ±2 ans que le projet a été approuvé par la Plénière Commune du Congrès Constitutionel et Conseil Consultatif des Personnes Eminents en avril 2014 après 7 semaines plénières, guidé par Philip A. Knight et les professeurs Yash Pal Ghai & Ronald Lampman Watts. Le projet spécifique a ensuite été finalisé par l'Unité de la Reforme Constitutionnelle et a été rédigé professionnellement par Philip A. Knight, pour devenir la première version du proposé Constitution Fédéral (un proposition qui commençait en 2004).

Cet article-ci est le premier document publié (dans la mesure de des connaissances de l'auteur) qui specifiquement observe et critique l'appel à la haine, et l'incitation de nuire sur la base de l'orientation sexuelle, qui est aussi parmis par cet projet Contistutionel discriminatoire. Il faut être au courent que, dans les Îles Salomon, la Constitution est "le seul instrument qui interdit la discrimination".

Ce projet Contistutionel a été publié en 6 May 2014 et est disponible gratuitement en version imprimée de l'Unité de la Reforme Constitutionnelle. Avant octobre 2015, il a déjà été inspecté, parmis des Programmes de Sensibilisation Provincials, par ±500 Salomoniens (y compris des membres du Parlement), apparement en recevoir aucune critique spécifique publiée (autre que sûr l'absence du leader feminin). En octobre 2015, il y avait une autre consultation de sensibilisation en Fiji avec 50 "étudiants de l'Université du Pacifique Sud et de l'Université National de Fiji, et des Salomoniens qui occupent des positions importants dans des instituts académiques et organisations nationals divers en Suva", y compris des doctorants. Ensuite, il a aussi été approuvé à l'unanimité par 50 étudiants de droit en dernière ou troisième année de l'Université du Pacifique Sud en Vanuatu, aussi en octobre 2015.

Einführung für die Presse

Der Autor, ein 23-jährige Belgier (die noch nie von der Salomonen gehört hatte bis vor kurzem vor seine Ankunft in Oktober 2015) begann der neuesten Entwurf der Verfassung der Salomonen (on-line) einzugeben, auf 4. Februar 2016. Am gleichen Tag, innerhalb der ersten 20 Seiten, bemerkte der Autor die ausdrückliche Erlaubnis von Diskriminierung (und von Hassreden, und der Anstiftung zu Schaden) auf der Grundlage der sexuellen Orientierung.

Hier (soweit dem Autor bekannt), äußerte sich der Autor nur die zweite veröffentlichte Kritik an den diskriminierenden Formulierungen in diesem bestimmten Entwurf; und der erste veröffentlichte Kritik, die spezifisch das Hassreden und der Anstiftung zu Schaden auf der Grundlage der sexuellen Orientierung; auch durch dieser diskriminierenden Verfassungsentwurf erlaubt; speziell beobachtet und kritisiert.

Das Verfassungsentwurf wurde am 6. Mai 2014 publiziert und ±600 Bürger der Salomonen wurden bereits darauf aufmerksam gemacht vor November 2015.

Für eine mehr komplette Einführung, sehe English ('International English'), Niederländish ('Nederlands') oder Französisch ('Français').

लिए परिचय

कुंजीयन (ऑनलाइन) शुरू कर दिया, पर 4 मार्च, 2016, पहले 20 पृष्ठों के भीतर, लेखक भेदभाव की स्पष्ट भत्ता (और घृणा की वकालत की और शह देखा कारण नुकसान) यौन अभिविन्यास के आधार पर। यहाँ (जहाँ तक लेखक के बारे में पता है के रूप में), लेखक कि विशिष्ट मसौदा और पहली बार प्रकाशित आलोचना जो विशेष रूप से देखने को मिलती है और घृणा की वकालत की आलोचना में भेदभाव शब्दों के प्रति केवल दूसरे प्रकाशित आलोचना व्यक्त की, और शह के आधार पर नुकसान का कारण यौन अभिविन्यास है, जो भी है कि भेदभाव संवैधानिक मसौदा द्वारा लिए अनुमति दी जाती है। यही कारण है कि संवैधानिक मसौदा 6 मई 2014 को प्रकाशित हुआ था, और पहले से ही Nov, 2015 से पहले लगभग 600 सोलोमन द्वीप को अवगत कराया गया था।

Introduzione per la stampa

L’autore, un Belgo da 23 anni (che non aveva ascoltato dalle Isole Salomone prima di arrivarsi in Ottobre 2015) cominciava a digitare (on-line) l'ultima versione della Costituzione dalle Isole Solomone, il 4 di Febbraio 2016. Già lo stesso giorno, nelle prime 20 pagine, l'autore era stupefatto del assegno esplicito di discriminazione (anche della promozione di odio e incitamento die causare danni) sulla base dell'orientamento sessuale.

Qui (per quanto l'autore ne ha conoscenza), l'autore ha espresso soltanto la seconda critica pubblicata verso le parole e le formulazioni discriminanti in quella versione specifica (l'ultima versione della Costituzione dalle Isole Solomone) e la prima critica pubblicata osserva e critica la promozione di odio, e di incitamento da dannare sulla base dell'orientamento sessuale, che viene consentito in quella versione.

Quella versione della Costituzione dalle Isole Solomone veniva pubblicata il 6 Maggio 2014, ed era già portata all'attenzione di ±600 abitanti dalle Isole prima di Novembre 2015.

Per una introduzione più completa, vedere inglese ('International English'), olandese ('Nederlands') o francese ('Français').

논평을 위한 서론

2015년 10월 방문 전까지 솔로몬군도에 대해 전혀 들어본 적이 없는 23세 벨기에 출신 필자는 2016년 2월 4일, 솔로몬군도 최근 헌법안(인터넷링크)을 살펴보기 시작했다.

같은 날, 첫 20장 내에서, 필자는 성적성향에 대한 명백한 차별(해로움을 유발하는 증오와 선동의 옹호)을 발견했다.

필자가 생각하기에, 성적성향을 이유로 증오와 선동을 일으킬 수 있는 헌법 내 차별표현에 대한 첫 관찰과 비평이 이루어진 이후, 두 번째로 이에 관한 비평을 표현하고자 한다.

헌법 초안은 2014년 6월에 출간되었고, 2015년 11월 전까지 약 600명의 솔로몬국민이 이 헌법 초안을 찾아봤을 것이라 예상한다.

보다 나은 이해를 위해 영어 ('International English'), 네덜란드어 ('Nederlands'), 프랑스어 ('Français') 버전을 참고하라.

Introducción para la prensa

El 4 de febrero del 2016, el autor, un belga de 23 años de edad (quien nunca había oído hablar de las Islas Salomón hasta hace poco, antes de llegar allí en octubre del 2015) comenzó a escribir (en línea) sobre el último borrador de la Constitución de las Islas Salomón. Ese mismo día, dentro de las primeras 20 páginas, el autor se dio cuenta de la explícita discriminación (y de la apología de odio y la incitación a causar daño) en base a la orientación sexual.

Aquí - hasta donde el autor sabe y manifiesta - es apenas la segunda crítica publicada hacia las expresiones discriminatorias, específicamente en ese borrador y es la primera crítica publicada en la cual se observa y critica la apología de odio y de incitación a causar daño, en base como se mencionó anteriormente: de la orientación sexual, actos discriminatorios permitidos que figuran en el borrador de la Constitución de las Islas Salomón.

El borrador de la Constitucion en mención fue publicado el 6 de mayo del 2014, y ya ha llegado a manos de un promedio de 600 Salomoneses, esto, antes de noviembre del 2015.

Para una introducción más completa, véase en Inglés ('International English'), holandés ('Nederlands') o francés ('Français').

Pagpapakilala para sa Press

Ang may-akda, ang isang 23-taong gulang na Belgian (na hindi kailanman narinig ng Solomon Islands hanggang kamakailan-lamang hanggang sa umabot ang Oktobre 2015) nagsimula ang pagsusulat (on-line) ang pinakabagong draft ng Konstitusyon ng Solomon Islands, sa 4 Pebrero 2016. Nang araw ring iyon, sa loob ng unang 20 mga pahina, ang may-akda ay napansin ang tahasang allowance ng diskriminasyon (at ng mga advocacy ng galit, at ng pang-uupat na magiging sanhi ng pinsala) sa batayan ng oryentasyong seksuwal.

Ito (kasing layo ng ang may-akda ay may kamalayan), ang may-akda ipinahayag lamang ang pangalawang-publish, pintas patungo sa nakikitang kaibahan sa mga salita sa partikular na draft at ang unang nai-publish, pintas na partikular na obserbasyon at pagpuna ang advocacy ng galit, at ng pang-uupat sa magiging sanhi ng pinsala sa lupa ng oryentasyong seksuwal, na kung saan ay pinahihintulutan din para sa sa pamamagitan ng na nakikita ang kaibhan Constitutional draft.

Iyon Constitutional draft ay nai-publish nuon 6 Mayo 2014, at noon ay na ginawa ng kamalayan sa ±600 Solomon Islanders bago ang Nobyembre 2015.

Para sa karagdagang pagpapakilala, tingnan Ingles ('International English'), Dutch ('Nederlands') o Pranses ('Français').

Abbreviations
Some abbreviations used in this article (left) and their meaning (right)
Abbreviation Meaning
SI Solomon Islands: the Melanesian state "just a 3 hour flight from Australia".13
LGBTQ+ Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Queer/Questioning, and others.14
LGBTI Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, &/or Intersex.15

Law on LGBTQ+ in SI

Sexual orientation & endorsed draft [published on 6 May 2014] of SI Constitution

Endorsed draft of SI Constitution allows for discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation

In that latest draft, under "Chapter 3—Our Human Rights", it is stated that "nation's fundamental values and principles" are to be described which will "belong to each person", that is of course starting from the effective date of the Constitution.

A nice promise. But what is written in that chapter, in the draft's Section 19) Right to equality and freedom from discrimination? I'll represent its relevant sub-section (sub-section 3) here in full: The government in every sphere, and every organ of government, must not discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds, including birth, age, ethnicity, social origin, race, colour, language, religion, conscience, belief or opinion, culture, sex, pregnancy, marital status, disability, social status or economic status. In this subsection, "sex" is not to be interpreted as including sexual orientation.1 Subsections 4 and 5 of that Section then further dwell on the basis laid in sub-section 3 above:

Subsection 4 of Section 19 of the Constitutional draft

No person may discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more of the grounds set out or contemplated in subsection 3.1

Subsection 5 of Section 19 of the Constitutional draft

Treating one person differently from another on any of the grounds set out or contemplated in subsection 3 is discrimination, unless it can be established that the difference in treatment is reasonable in the circumstances.1
Since the drafters have explicitly added the statement that "sex" is not to be interpreted as including sexual orientation, this leaves no doubt to the careful reader about the fact that this Constitution would indeed refrain from granting the right against discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation within the Solomon Islands! This boils down to mentioning that the right of protection against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is deliberately excluded from the Solomon Islands constitution.

The Constitution has 2 options regarding discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation: it can either allow for it, or it can not allow for it. If the Constitution would have not mentioned a word about sexual orientation, it would have only implicitly allowed for the discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation (which would have been less upsetting since: after all, one could argue that it is impossible to include all desirable characteristics which one should not discriminate for). But as it is written now, and considering what the Constitution had promised to do in this chapter, this is plainly explicitly allowing discrimination on grounds of sexual orientations.

In the first draft of 2009 (published on 26 June) of the new Constitution, the freedom from discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation was actually newly and explicitly INcluded,16 before it vanished from the grounds listed in the consecutive 2011 draft.17 Vanished it stayed in the 2013 draft18, thus only to be yet later explicitly EXcluded as a prohibited ground of discrimination in the latest draft...

The 2013 draft had already, similarly but more restrictively discriminating, explicitly allowed for the creation of laws making provision for "the prohibition of cohabitation of same sex partners and same sex marriages"19 (for other and more comprehensive criticism on other topics and earlier versions of the Constitution, please refer to the document about any kinds of discrimination in the whole of Solomon Islands: "Stand Up and Fight: Addressing Discrimination and Inequality in Solomon Islands").

What a disturbing discriminating aspect of the Constitution has this become?

The only other publication (as far as I have been able to discover) which has criticized these specific wordings, is the thorough source "Stand Up and Fight: Addressing Discrimination and Inequality in Solomon Islands" which writes, amongst multiple warnings of danger, about the prohibited grounds for discrimination in the Constitution: [...] the list explicitly excludes sexual orientation from these grounds. This exclusion is completely contrary to international human rights law, which has long recognised sexual orientation as a protected characteristic.9 In order to fix this, I purport, the Constitution should now be revised in order to EXPLICITLY include the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. I think public apologies would be appropriate.

Please note that the constitution is "the only legal instrument prohibiting discrimination in the country".9

If one has well read the subsections 4 and 5 (reproduced above), one also has to note that the "a person" in the Constitutional draft, is defined as also including companies and other bodies: 264) Definitions [...]
"person" includes a company, association or other body of persons whether incorporated or unincorporated;1
This means that (if nothing changes) the new Constitution (as it is drafted now) would legally allow for the discrimination (which I criticized above), by the Solomon Islands government (or any organ of government), by any company, and by any person or body of persons.

Endorsed draft of SI Constitution allows for advocacy of hatred (and incitement to cause harm) on the basis of sexual orientation

To make things even worse, let's take a look at what other atrocities this Constitution allows for, due to its explicit allowance of the previously mentioned discrimination.

Still in the "Chapter 3—Our Human Rights", under the draft's Section 25) Freedom of expression, publication and media, it is promised that... Everyone has freedom of expression and publication, which includes [...] freedom of the press, including print, electronic and other media [...] Now, along with the previously quoted Section 19) 3, this allows people to distribute pamphlets which discriminate sexual minorities.

Even the advocacy of hatred on the basis of sexual orientation is allowed by this endorsed constitution draft. One just has to take a closer look at that same Section 25 to notice that, about the advocacy of hatred, only the following is mentioned: Freedom of expression and publication does not protect a person who expresses [...] advocacy of hatred that [...] is based on any prohibited ground of discrimination listed or contemplated in Section 19) 3; and constitutes incitement to cause harm. This refers back to the grounds of discrimination in sub-section 3 of Section 19, where sexual orientation has been openly cut out of the Constitution's prohibited grounds of discrimination (as we have discussed above)...

As if that advocacy of hatred were not worse enough by itself, these 2 sections allow for even more twisted actions. If one reads the sentence from Section 25 which is quoted above literally, then both of its requirements (it is clearly written "and" instead of "or") to stop protecting a person's freedom of speech can never be fulfilled when that person would advocate hatred on the basis of sexual orientation, even if that were to "constitute incitement to cause harm".

The final Joint Plenary ever led to that latest endorsed draft of SI Constitution

I am still in shock about discovering the previously quoted passages from the latest draft of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Solomon Islands (that is the draft published on 6 May 2014).

The Constitutional Reform Unit (CRU) proudly advertise that draft on their website, notifying the availability of its copies (they were also notified and advertised in a different and more pictorial way by posters on at 4 big billboards, since late 2015, spread through the capital of the country): The 2014 Draft Federal Constitution was endorsed by the 4th Joint Plenary in April 2014. It was finalized by CRU technical team and Professional Constitution Drafter. This Draft is now available in print at CRU office.20 Apparently, this endorsement did not just happen in the blink of an eye. This approval process took 7 weeks: After 5 weeks, deliberating and getting professional perspectives from external experts on the 2014 Draft Federal Constitution of Solomon Islands, the 4th Joint Plenary met an extra 2 weeks to go through and endorse the professionally drafted 2014 Draft.7 The 4th Joint Plenary was also guided by "experts". Let's take a look at who these external experts might be. A jolly pamphlet distributed by the Constitutional Reform Unit, reveals the following "experts":
  • Professor Yash [Pal] Ghai (Constitutional Law expert),
  • Dr. Phillip [A.] Knight (Legal/Constitution Professional drafter),
  • Professor Ronald [Lampman] Watts (Philosopher Economist & a founder of Forum of Federations).7
Are these people the ordinary Joe professor? If awards were reliable indicators of expertise, they seem to suggest the contrary. Yash Pal Ghai University of Hong Kong | Wikipedia | The Star, Kenya received honours from the United Kingdom: he became a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) and a Fellow of the British Academy (FBA).21 Ronald Lampman Watts Wikipedia (who passed away on 9 October 2015)222324252627 had the pleasure of becoming a Companion of the Order of Canada in 200027 and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada himself.272823 Whereas the latter 2 are sometimes referred to as "auditors"29, Phillip A. Knight LinkedIn | Tulane University Law School) (an undergraduate30 is cited separately as being the single professional drafter29 of that Constitutional draft: [...] the recent 2014 Draft, professionally drafted by Constitution professional drafter Dr. Philip [A.] Knight.31 Perhaps it is not the core of the jobs of these experts to criticize the ideas of the people which they try to assist in achieving a Constitution? The professional drafter Philip A. Knight has certainly criticized (or expressed normative judgements or moral considerations about) the desireability of certain parts of the draft.32 I am still puzzled as to while during Plenary sessions guided by experts; and then later during reviews, awareness programs and consultations involving ±600 Solomon Islanders; seemingly nobody (which is what it seems like after a first glance on the press releases by the Constitutional Reform Unit1210113334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758; which contain very little to no information on arguments or discussions: the only specifically published criticism seems to be about the lack of addressing women leadership5960) felt it necessary to specifically and publicly criticize what I will highlighted above...

Update as of 23 February 2016: As of today, I have sent a letter jointly addressed to Philip A. Knight & Yash Pal Ghai, to ask for their support of my criticism, and to sign and share the petitions which can be found at the top of this article. I am currently awaiting a reply.

Criminalization of LGBTQ+ in SI

A 2016 report published by the Equal Rights Trust, in partnership with the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), reveals that both "buggery" (or even attempting such intercourse) as well as physical acts of same-sex love remain illegal in Solomon Islands. The report, entitled "Stand Up and Fight: Addressing Discrimination and Inequality in Solomon Islands" is well worth reading on-line (and freely so).

This publication, in turn, refers (as have other reports done)61 to the 1996 revised edition61 of the country's PENAL CODE (Chapter 26 in the LAWS OF SOLOMON ISLANDS). More specifically, it quotes its Sections 160→162, which I will also introduce here below:

Sections 160→161: Criminalization of "buggery" in SI (7→14 years prison sentence)

The term "buggery" is used here presumably instead of anal intercourse, and is the topic of Sections 160 & 161. Another description used here is 'un-natural' offences.

Please note the liable 7- & 14-year prison sentences respectively. 160. Unnatural offences
Any person who—
  1. commits buggery with another person or with an animal; or
  2. permits a male person to commit buggery with him or her,
shall be guilty of a felony, and shall be liable to imprisonment for 14 years.

161. Attempts to commit unnatural offences
Any person who attempts to commit any of the offences specified in the last preceding section, or who is guilty of any and assault with intent to commit the same, or any indecent assault upon any male person shall be guilty of a felony, and shall be liable to imprisonment for 7 years.62

Section 162: Criminalization of same-sex acts of love in SI (5 year prison sentence)

Physical acts of same-sex love seems to be referred to as "indecent practices" in SI, and can result in imprisonment up to 5 years.

Such is revealed by country's PENAL CODE, through a section inserted by a 1990 act61 (before this replacement, that Section 162 was called "Indecent practices between males"):63 162. Indecent practices between persons of the same sex
Any person who, whether in public or private—
  1. commits any act of gross indecency with another of the same sex;
  2. procures another of the same sex to commit any act of gross indecency; or
  3. attempts to procure the commission of any act of gross indecency by persons of the same sex,
shall be guilty of a felony and be liable to imprisonment for 5 years.62
The Law Reform Comission explained in the "2011 Review of the Penal Code and Criminal Procedure by the Solomon Islands Law Reform Commission" what is meant by "gross indecency" in Section 162: The act does not define 'gross indecency', however from the research it includes touching another peron's genitals with hands, oral sex and masturbation.64
In fact, same-sex relations in SI (then not even yet called the British Solomon Islands Protectorate) is claimed to have been illegal since the 1880s,656667 around the time when blackbirding, and colonial proselytizing began to further establish itself68 (throughout the world, it is not unusual that the criminalization of homosexuality was driven by colonizers; and while those colonizers themselves have of course already long decriminalized homosexuality, some of their former colonies sadly lack this evolution).65

The International Lesbian Gay Bisexual Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA) communicates that same-sex relationships are illegal altogether in SI, and that LGBTI families/parents cannot adopt children.69

Urgent need for sexual revolution in SI law and culture

From literature

The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the U.S. Department of State yearly publishes a Human Right Report on Solomon Islands. In every report since 2009, it includes the following: Societal Abuses, Discrimination, and Acts of Violence Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
Sodomy is illegal, as are "indecent practices between persons of the same sex." The maximum penalty for the former is 14 years' imprisonment, and for the latter, five years. However, there were no reports of prosecutions directed at lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender persons under these provisions during the year. There were no reports of violence or discrimination against persons on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity.707172737475
Starting from 2012, that last sentence was altered as the following was added: [...], although stigma may hinder some from reporting.72737475 Therefor, it might be interesting to find out whether or not there is indeed a stigma against sexual minorities.

Let's once more consult the 2016 open access report entitled "Stand Up and Fight: Addressing Discrimination and Inequality in Solomon Islands", which was published by the Equal Rights Trust, in partnership with the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). It is indeed confirmed that such discrimination exists. The stigma is in fact even called "severe", which is certainly not an overstatement considering the information shared by reported interviewees. The report concludes:
  • Lesbian, gay and bisexual persons are also subject to severe social stigma, with the result that there are very few openly gay, lesbian or bisexual persons in the country. Testimony from gays and lesbians collected for this report provides evidence of harassment, violence and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.
  • These testimonies have indicated the existence of severe cases of harassment and discriminatory violence, and of discrimination in both employment and education.9
  • [...] if Solomon Islands is to move on from the conflict which afflicted the country between 1998 and 2003, its people must stand up and fight traditions which exacerbate difference on the basis of ethnicity, gender, disability and sexual orientation.76
The report further describes worrisome replies by the Solomon Islands government to international appeals to revoke its LGBTQ+ discrimination and criminalization. Such replies can be found literally e.g. on the website of ARC International.

It also learns us that, in the 21th century, a middle-aged mother was charged in SI under the previously mentioned PENAL CODE's section 162. Indecent practices between persons of the same sex, for having sex with a person of the same gender. It was first reported that the mother was refused bail after she appeared in court on 8 December 2013. SI magistrate Jefferson Leua was paraphrased in an Australian news article of having said that "the offence was a serious one".

On that same day, as a beam of light in the darkness, the illegality of the case was luckily publicly criticized by Ashley Wickham, which was then head of UNHCR77's Honiara Office.

Another New Zealand news article, on 12 March 2014, reports the following proceedings of the case: The Solomon Islands Magistrates Court has remanded a woman who has been charged with homosexual activity. The accused was remanded in police custody for the third time because the alleged victim failed to appear in court again. The court heard from the victim’s lawyer that her family was not happy with the crowds that gathered outside the court house to see the parties involved in the case. The woman charged is to reappear on March 24th.78 I have failed to find any outcome of this case, but wish to yet again note that a change for SI discrimination is extremely urgent (considering the discriminatory stigma and violence described above).

Articles in SI newspaper publicly discriminate and discourage homosexuality

The urgency for a revolution is also clear from other LGBTQ+ discriminating articles in SI's newspapers:

Articles in SI newspaper publicly discriminate and discourage homosexuality

In a SI newspaper article of 23 December 2008, after the Law Reform Commission planned to "legalize and grant equality on the gay and lesbian community", the following is included: "Legalizing gay and lesbian in the country would only encourage the breed of more," a young man, Nolen Basui, said. In strong opposition, he said that Solomon Islands as a "long time Christian country" should never think of introducing such law in the system.79 Paula Gerber, a professor at Monash University Law School and Deputy Director of the Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, has commented on this while referring to the article "Nigerian pastor who says gays will end humanity touring Pacific region": After this failed attempt at reform in the Solomon Islands, change seems far away. Indeed, churches from as far away as Nigeria are sending pastors to many countries in the Pacific, including the Solomon Islands, in an attempt to spread their anti-LGBTI ideology across the region.80 In 2012, when Palau and Nauru pledged to decriminalise homosexuality, SI still reported to the United Nations not wanting to do so.81

In a SI newspaper article of 25 August 2015, John Toki, a West Guadalcanal chief from the Visale community in the Sangalu ward, is reported to discourage non-conformist 'lifestyles': The chief [John Toki] further stated that schools, churches and communities should discourage people from going into such lifestyles [gay marriage or lesbian couples] because it had distorted cultural values as well as Christian principles.82 I will come back to this later in "What is 'Christianity'?".

He [John Toki] also said that: Countries that were more likely to legalise such practices are societies with high population of those kind of people, thus Solomon Island was not one of them since gays and lesbian population had not existed at all to alert national attention.82 And then concluded by adding that: [...] rights of people must be practiced to certain limits that overlapped with our religious faith and home-grown culture, but not to go beyond the changes that still [are] 100 years away from today.82 Please note here that the claim of chief John Toki that "gays and lesbian population had not existed at all to alert national attention", is plainly wrong. Cf. Robert Aldrich's chapter "Sex in the South Seas", where it is documented that, starting as early as the 19th century, there have been numerous documented homosexual acts, including amongst missionaries of low and high rank. Further more, it reveals that:
  • Europeans knew some men in the Solomons practised same-sex intercourse [...];
  • Europeans also realised that homosexual practices on large copra plantations, with all-male labour forces of recruits from different islands of the archipelago, were not uncommon in the Solomons [...].83
The day afterwards, on 25 August 2015, in the same SI newspaper, a certain "Jackson Ray", which identifies himself with Fiji's Fulton College (perhaps somebody needs to urgently talk with this institution?), claims to agree completely with John Toki. This person, signing as belonging to Fulton College, makes what I believe to be a very disagreeable statement to most scientific experts and LGBTQ+ activists (cf. e.g. former High Court judge Michael Kirby, who was also Australia's longest-serving judge84), by claiming that homosexuality:
  • [...] is a lifestyle choice whether we like it or not.85
Further more, in that article, he refers to homosexuality (or homosexual orientation) with the terms summed up here below:
  • immoral behaviour;
  • immoral practice;
  • unnatural practice;
  • perverse lifestyle;
  • perverse morality.85
Jackson Ray also writes about the factual existence of homosexuals on SI: They are out there even if you don't see them so much in public due largely to our society's intolerance to such lifestyle and behaviour.85 The discriminatory opinion article concludes by adding to the stanza that a supernatural Christian apocalypse is about to occur soon, which it somehow wants to relate to the prohibition of aid donations due to SI's discrimination against homosexuality (note again the continuous use of the term 'lifestyle'): You could only wish that Solomon Islands remains this way for the next 100 years, but the reality is that it's already here. Just wait and you would see the so called rainbow flag or banner being flown in the Solomon Islands soon. The reason I'm saying this is that our country depends very much on aid money for its survival. Therefore, if we do not accept such people in our society, then the money would not be flowing in.

We are living in the final hours of earth's history my friend. Why? Because in history when this perverse lifestyle was rife and mankind became like animals, God punished them with a flood. He then sent down rain on Sodom and Gomorrah for this same sin.

Now the world is making this practice legal, therefore, I bet you, it's not long before the God of the universe would visit this perverse world again. Till then, I'd say with Mr Toki, let's try and discourage this lifestyle/practice with our Christian and traditional values.85
I will not reason with the claim of an apocalypse, whatever that might mean.

The fallacious arguments of 'un-Christian' & 'un-traditional' & 'un-natural' to discriminate LGBTQ+

In the SI draft report of the 11th session of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review (UPRWG) of the UN Human Rights Council's (UNHRC) of 9 May 2011, it is noted that the delegation (headed by Minister for Foreign Affairs and External Trade, Peter Shanel Agovaka) of the SI government reported the following: [...] the cultural context of the society does not condone relationships between same sexes. Any commitment to removing Penal Code provisions criminalizing sexual relations between consenting adults of the same sex must be subject to consultations. However, there have not been any submissions to the Law Reform Commission in their review of the Penal Code to repeal these sections.86 Above, the government is sadly trying to escape its responsibility to follow international human rights, by referring to the current discriminatory 'tradition' within the prevailing culture.

On 21/9/2011, a delegation of the SI government declined recommendations of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review (UPRWG) of the UN Human Rights Council's (UNHRC) regarding sexual freedom. Peter Shanel Agovaka, as head of Solomon Islands Delegation to the 18th session of the Human Rights Council, gave the following reasoning: Recommendations not supported
While we acknowledge and recognize international human rights standards, I must say that in a Solomon Islands context it would be too early to discuss decriminalizing sexual relations between consenting adults of the same sex. Such an issue requires thorough national consultations to address christian doctrines and cultural perspectives on the issue. To this end, we do not support the Recommendations 81.49-81.51 on sexual relations between consenting adults of the same sex.87
This worrisome reply to international recommendations, clearly refers to 'Christianity'.

It is thus clear from both replies by the Solomon Islands government against the decriminalization of LGBTQ+, as well as from the newspaper articles (cf. earlier), that Solomon Islanders refer to either 'tradition' or 'Christianity' to claim that something (e.g. homosexuality) is un-appropriate, immoral or even un-'natural'. Please allow me to make some remarks on this in the following 2 sections.

What is 'Christianity'?

One opinion-maker in a SI newspaper (cf. the expandable section above), writes the following: The worst case scenario is when the churches who are supposed to uphold Christian and moral values are being dictated to by the world as to what morality is.85 Well, both of these 2 views are obviously not mutually exclusive, as churches are obviously part of the world and in constant mutual communication with the world around them. But, in the context of what this author is trying to do, he probably fails to acknowledge that Christian churches themselves have started:
  • allowing homosexuals as members;
  • ordaining homosexuals;
  • blessing homosexual unions; and
  • marrying homosexuals.88
These evolutions within Christian churches are part of the Christian tradition(s).

The faulty (and very dangerous) paradigm which the opinion-making author of the mentioned quote tries to propagate is that morality within Christianity somehow stays completely fixed and remains untouched by the constantly changing world. This is not only factual non-sense: claiming that religious morality needs this fixation is also one of the most dangerous paradigms of religious extremism.

The same aspect of fundamentalist extremism is also clearly visible in a previously mentioned 2015 statement by John Toki, a West Guadalcanal chief from the Visale community in the Sangalu ward: The chief [John Toki] further stated that schools, churches and communities should discourage people from going into such lifestyles [gay marriage or lesbian couples] because it had distorted cultural values as well as Christian principles.82 The speaker here seems to even acknowledge the fact that Christian morality and cultural values are changing, but clearly tries to condemn this reality and argues for a fixation.

Further more, just referring to a certain religion in an attempt to prove that something should be condemned, can dangerously overlap with numerous fallacies, such as: 'argumentum ad verecundiam', 'argumentum ad antiquitatem', or 'argumentum ad populum', to name a few.

The discriminating pseudo-argument of 'tradition'

At many instances, LGBTQ+ discriminators on SI try to use the pseudo-argument of 'tradition'. See e.g. how is referred to (old) culture in the worrisome call for the discouraging of homosexuality (where it is said that 'cultural values' are being changed, without however specifying what these values actually are and why they should purportedly be held up by everyone in a certain country): [...] communities should discourage people from going into such lifestyles because it had distorted cultural values as well as Christian principles.82 When used separately, the argument of 'referring to the past' is of course nothing more than the fallacy 'argumentum ad antiquitatem'.

When LGBTQ+ discriminators use this fallacy, they also rely on the misleading and faulty claim that the Christian tradition does not welcome homosexuality, without acknowledging evolutions that have started within Christianity.

When LGBTQ+ discriminators use this fallacy by referring to general traditions (the Christian traditions or others), they fail to open a real discussion pertaining to the essential value (if they were even to be able to articulate such a value) of discriminating against LGBTQ+ (or the fears which cause this discrimination).

What is (more) 'natural'? Christianity or Homosexuality?

As I have shown above, and as is not hard to understand, Christianity is a dynamic and pluralistic tradition. This fact (that Christianity; as well as any culture; is not some fixed natural constant) is vital to remember, also since it shows how weak the pseudo-arguments from LGBTQ+ opponents in can really get.

To frame this weakness in arguments, please allow me to drift off for moment to a country where the government does not "sponsors" LGBTQ+ discrimination.61

In October 2006, The Natural History Museum of the University of Oslo, in Norway, presented "the first-ever museum exhibition dedicated to gay animals".89 I will present what the museum described as their motives for displaying the exhibition: We feel confident that a greater understanding of how extensive and common this behaviour is among animals, will help to de-mystify homosexuality among people. — At least, we hope to reject the all too well known argument that homosexual behaviour is a crime against nature.89 I mention the quote above for 2 reasons.
  • Firstly, because I think that such an exhibition should be financed and organized by the government in Solomon Island. Although, when hosting such an exhibition, one should be aware of Solomon Islands' counts of "traffic in obscene publication" (PENAL CODE Section 173) and "possession of obscene video tape or photograph" (PENAL CODE Section 174)62, whatever they may mean according to interpretation of the Principal Magistrate.90 When I spoke about homosexuality with a local Solomon Islander and acquaintance of mine, who works in the information sector of the government, she claimed that a lot of people in the country actually do not know what homosexuality exactly is (but yet claim to be viciously opposed) unless they are very educated. As the conversation went along, I discovered that she herself actually did not understand the term, as she continuously erroneously used the term "homosexuals" when she wanted to talk about transgenders (although she also did not use or perhaps remembered the latter term). Then I explained to her that "homosexuality" is not equal to "transgender", but instead is the sexual attraction to people of the same gender. As soon as she understood that, she thought that I would be hated and bullied in the press even more, if my petitions were to become known in the country, because of the closed-mindedness of the people in the country.
  • Secondly, I mention this because it is claimed that there is a "too well known argument that homosexual behaviour is a crime against nature". Please allow me to elaborate on that in the remainder of this section.
If this is indeed a widespread pseudo-argument against homosexuality (that is: claiming that it is 'un-natural'), then one might hypothesize that, in SI, this term ('un-natural') has not only been used to classify (what seems to be) anal intercourse in its PENAL CODE (as shown earlier; cf. also "Philosophical examination of the-'against nature'-argument, in relation to sodomy" for a discussion), but has also been used to try to condemn homosexuality. This is indeed the case, as an article in a SI newspaper indeed refers to homosexuality as 'un-natural practice'85. At the same time, many government replies and newspaper articles in SI have shown that opponents of LGBTQ+ often would like to oppose LGBTQ+ to 'Christianity'; or even claim that, since that e.g. homosexuality is supposedly not part of 'Christianity', therefor is immoral.

Let us examine the newspaper article85 in which both of these claims occur together. The opponent of homosexuality, there, clearly claims 2 things:
  • Homosexuality is 'un-natural',
  • Opposed to this, is 'the Christian way'.
However vague the first statements is, let us jointly examine those 2 claim a bit more philosophically. It seems as if the feature which opponents of homosexuality condemn the most is that it is supposedly 'un-natural'. Therefor, one could expect that 'the Christian way', which is supposedly to condemn homosexuality, is itself not 'un-natural'.

This seems to indicate that Christianity would be a 'natural' way. But that is of course non-sense, since Christianity is a novice tradition and culture itself.

The concept 'culture' can be only understood as being opposed to the concept 'nature', whereby it carries the meaning of being 'un-natural' in this sense.91 It takes a period of 'Enlightenment', as having arisen in privileged cultures (e.g. starting in the 17th century in Europe), to be able to reflect on human traditions in this way, which somewhat conquers the dangers of relying on 'tradition'.

Christian traditions, for example, have arisen in a certain century (not too long ago), and can certainly not be considered 'natural' in that way. Therefor, it is quite ridicule for those opponents (which also claim that 'homosexuality' is supposedly condemned by Christianity) to claim that homosexuality should be condemned because it is supposedly 'un-natural': Christianity is itself 'un-natural'.

Please make up your own mind, to answer the question as to what is more 'natural':
  • Christianity (which has first originated only ±2 millennia ago); or
  • Homosexuality (which humans have been enjoying over greatly longer periods of time, and is present in >1500 animal species89)?
Or to refer more specific to Melanesian culture (of which Solomon Islands is part) ... which one is more 'natural':
  • Christianity (which possibly only since 1839 had been tried to be exported into Melanesia in a colonial fashion, and was first violently rejected)92; or
  • Homosexuality (which has been indigenously even ritualized in ±10-20% of Melanesia93, most likely way before)?
Please do not read my words as against Christian traditions in their entirety. I merely think that it is a philosopher's task to be in a dialogue with religions, in order to facilitate healthy progress and not to end up with extremism.

Hopefully, such dialogues can facilitate religious tradition on how to pluralisticly support their members in re-inventing each individual's way to find strength and comfort in core values such as peacefulness, respect, sympathy, consideration of the disadvantaged, and how to share and co-exist with 'others', in a constantly evolving world.

I have the feeling that people in Honiara have the knowledge on how to be able to let many different churches peacefully co-exist next to one another (even when a lot of money is involved). If they have this religious wisdom as regards to churches, they should also be able to extend this wisdom to a broader interpretation of religion (I am dwelling on any of the numerous meanings of the possible roots of the word 'religion', from etymological analyses)94. In this broader sense, in which any person who regards his life as meaningful can be said to be religious, an LGBTQ+ identity (and the experience of love that accompanies it) may well be understood as a (a part of a) religion itself. Please compare this broader interpretation with one Albert Einstein's writings which I cherish the most: What is the meaning of human life, or, for that matter, of the life of any creature? To know an answer to this question means to be religious. You ask: does it make any sense, then, to pose this question? I answer: the man who regards his own life and that of his fellow creatures as meaningless is not merely unhappy but hardly fit for life.95

Philosophical examination of the-'against nature'-argument, in relation to sodomy

The following can be read as a side-note about the classification of (what seems to be) anal intercourse as 'un-natural' in SI PENAL CODE

Philosophical examination of the-'against nature'-argument, in relation to sodomy

It turns out that philosophers John Corvino, John McNeill & Burton Leiser have each examined various interpretations of the expression 'against nature', and... [...] argue that sodomy cannot reasonably be 'against nature.'96 A certain 'John Skalko' from the University of St. Thomas, seems to have tried to counter that claim, by purporting the following about sodomy (which he uses in an archaic way "in which Thomas Aquinas also uses it: sodomy involves copulation with an undue sex, namely males with males or females with females"): Sodomy is 'against nature' because it is using the generative power in a manner contrary to its due end.96 This argument is of course of no value, since sexuality (I will interpret 'generative power' as such) obviously has many different functions and pleasures (or 'ends') other than reproduction (as is known to anybody with some what an understanding of sex). I think the author of this quote has an almost unbelievable narrow conception of sex, as it is quite sad (and completely wrong) to purport that reproduction would be the only 'end' (or 'due end') of sexuality (of which sodomy is obviously a part), as this author seems to claim. It can even be argued that the experience of sodomy may well lead up to reproduction later.

Lastly, I'd wish to show the unreasonable aspects of the quoted line by using analogous reasoning. Why would sexuality only be considered natural in its function to reproduce? To show the unreasonableness of those who assume so, one could (analogous to the quoted line) also argue that eating with loved ones (e.g. with a focus on obtaining mutual moral support) who have just lost a dear friend is also 'against nature', because it is using the nurturing power (or alternatively again: 'the reproductive power') in a manner contrary to its due end? I hope this shows the ridiculousness of this claim, and that what an author claims to be the 'due end' (or rather the only 'due end') is completely arbitrary, and mis-acknowledges the plurality of cultural and biological aspects of a behavior by relying on an extremely reductionist meaning of life. This reduction of life falsely seems to reduce meanings of human biological potentiality to that of a micro-organism (and even in introductory evolutionary biology textbooks on micro-organisms, it is not justified to interpret analysis of functions or 'ends' teleologically.97 It certainly leads to inevitable contradictions to assume that, just because a certain trait has a certain function, that this function would automatically be (or not be) 'due' (and only that function so) or that this function would be automatically to be (or not to be) pursued morally (and only that function so).

In the case of SI, the country has made the least progress in demographic transition of all Pacific Island countries, mainly due to high fertility levels.98 I am not an expert, but it could perhaps be very useful for SI if the government were to promote the enjoyment of sex for agreeable ends other than reproduction? There is certainly an need for SI women to stop fearing contraception98; a fear which perhaps was partly installed by a similar reductionist and arbitrary conception of human life?

What can be done?

If you are a rights advocate (let it be for sexual minorities organizations, or of international law in general), please try your best to communicate your wishes to relevant persons and institutions.

You can help by sharing this article or by signing the petition on top of this page. Please try to contact journalists or press organization world-wide, as well as open-minded Solomon Islanders.

If anybody can arrange an office in Honiara, I would be happy to set up an LGBTQ+ organization to be able to defend the international rights of sexual minorities. People can also always contact me if they have any problems or want to talk.

I hope that citizens and organisations of Solomon Islands, with advanced respect towards the experience of human love, can participate in the very necessary revision of the Constitutional draft.

How much time is left?

It is important to act quickly. On 2 April 2013, the Constitutional Reform Program (CRP) estimated that: [...] the Reform should end this year.99 In May 2014, the CRP estimated that the final state-building; which would follow the latest ratification stage of the Constitutional Reform (involving the Constituent Assembly, which includes "all Members of Parliament, MPAs [Assembly Members] of all nine Provincial Governments, and representatives of the Civil Society"57); would take place in 2015, by the Constituent Assembly: Constitutional Reform Main Activities [...]

14) Constituent Assembly: Previously called the National Convention, this will be the final ratification process whereby the proposed Federal Constitution will go through bargaining by representatives of Solomon Islands political community, both national & regional stakeholders. When the final content of the proposed constitution is audited and drafted, it will be presented to these representatives to seek an indicative community response to the final draft.

The Assembly also has a state-building role. It will be a time when discussion will take place establishing the new union, and bargain the new political order of Solomon Islands. Realistically, this activity is anticipated for 2015.

Under the amended Section 61 of the current 1978 Independence Order, the Assembly will endorse the Constitutional Order of a new Federal State of the Republic of Solomon Islands.
For your reference, one can read Statutory Instrument 14) Alteration of this Order of the; and Section 61) Alteration of Constitution of the 1978 Independence Order (the current constitution) below:

Statutory Instrument 14: Alteration of this Order of The Solomon Islands Independence Order 1978

  1. Parliament may alter any of the provisions of this Order in the same manner as it may alter any of the provisions of the Constitution not specified in section 61(2) of the Constitution:

    Provided that subsections (1), (2), (3) and (5) of section 9, section 10, subsections (1) and (2) of section 11 and this section may be altered by Parliament only in the same manner as the provisions so specified.

  2. Section 61(5) of the Constitution shall apply for the purpose of construing references in this section to any provision of this Order and to the alteration of any such provision as it applies for the purpose of construing references in section 61 of the Constitution to any provision of the Constitution and to the alteration of any such provision.100

Section 61: Alteration of Constitution of The Solomon Islands Independence Order 1978

  1. Subject to the provisions of this section, Parliament may alter this Constitution.
  2. A Bill for an Act of Parliament to alter any of the following provisions of this Constitution, that is to say—
    1. this section;
    2. Chapters II, VII and IX;
    3. sections 46 to 58 (inclusive), and 108; and
    4. Chapter XIV to the extent that it relates to any of visions specified in the preceding paragraphs,
    shall not be passed by Parliament unless it is supported at the final voting on two separate readings in Parliament by the votes of not less than three-quarters of all the members of Parliament.
  3. A Bill for an Act of Parliament to alter any provision of this Constitution (but which does not alter any of the provisions of this Constitution as specified in subsection (2) of this section) shall not be passed by Parliament unless it is supported at the final voting on two separate readings in Parliament by the votes of not less than two-thirds of all the members of Parliament.
  4. Without prejudice to the provisions of subsections (2) and (3) of this section, a Bill for an Act of Parliament under this section shall not be passed by Parliament unless—
    1. notice of the Bill has been given to the Speaker at least four weeks before the first reading of the Bill in Parliament; and
    2. the Bill is clearly expressed to be a Bill for an Act of Parliament to alter the Constitution.
  5. In this section—
    1. references to this Constitution or to any particular provision thereof include references to any other law in so far as that law alters the Constitution or, as the case may be, that provision; and
    2. references to altering this Constitution or any particular provision thereof include references—
      1. to repealing it, with or without re-enactment thereof or the making of different provision in lieu thereof;
      2. to modifying it, whether by omitting or amending any of its provisions or inserting additional provisions in it or otherwise;
      3. to suspending its operation for any period, or terminating any such suspension; and
      4. to making any other provision that is repugnant to or otherwise inconsistent with it.100
A "Working Structure of Constitutional Reform Program", which was updated in December 2015, shows a rough diagram of the events which should lead up to the final endorsement of the new Constitutional Order by the Constituent Assembly.101

As of 22 February 2016, the latest message on the wall of the official Facebook Facebook of the Solomon Islands Constitutional Reform Programme (CRP), by the CRP, was sent on 12 March 2014. As a reply to this message, a Facebook user asked for any update, on 11 October 2015, but did not receive any reply.102 The latest tweet on the official Twitter Twitter of CRP, was sent by the CRP on 16 (or 17 December, depending on the electronically used time-zone) December 2015. That tweet claimed that its website was then updated:


Its website has not been updated since 17 December 2015.103

It is unclear how much time is exactly left, but it is urgent to change course!

Update as of 3 March 2016: Yesterday, when I went to the weeklong Workshop from 29 February—4 March 2016 on 2014 Draft Federal Constitution, the Vice Chair of CC & EPAC (Joseph Hute) informed me that the new Constitution is expected to become effective by late 2016, or if not early 2017. The Chair Lady of CC & EPAC (Jennie Toehaika) seemed to have mentioned that she expects this to happen by the second half of 2016.

Update as of 1 July 2016: More time seems to be created:
  • The consultations with the Bar Association also mark the conclusion of the consultation process of the 2nd 2014 Draft Federal Constitution. [...]
  • He [the Prime Minister] said with the conclusion of the consultation process, what remains to be done are basically procedural and administrative matters.

    The Prime Minister said as the Minister responsible for Constitutional matters, he will receive the final 2016/17 Draft Federal Constitution come early 2017 after which the government will decide on the type of ratification mechanism or process through which the people as well as elected leaders will scrutinise this document. 104
  • The Malaita Provincial Government has made its intention clear that it will not support the National Government’s intention of introducing a Federal System of Governance. [...]
  • Last year, Premier Ramohia announced that Malaita would like to adopt its own governance system that will work for Malaita and its people.

    And not to wait for another ten years for the federal system and or review of the Provincial Government Act that will only drag economic development behind.105

SI contact details to facilitate (media) communication

Please note that I have already notified this article to every "Contact" in the table below before 1PM (GMT+11) of 10 February 2016, within an hour after this article was published ("Forum Solomon Islands International" excepted, since they will not let me 'enter' their closed group). I have received not a single reply. Solomon Islands' press and institutions are not brave enough to report on this. This hints at how extensive the discrimination is embedded and how difficult it is to change the violation of human rights if the press is censured.

Therefor, it might be of better use to sign the petition near the top of this article.

Nevertheless, the following are contacts which could theoretically facilitate communication:
SI contact details to facilitate (media) communication
Contact Way of contacting
Position Name
  • Head of Media Association of Solomon Islands (MASI)
  • Editor of News and Current Affairs at Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation (SIBC)
Leni Dalavera
  • Manager of Pacific Islands News Association (PINA)
  • Editor of PINA's PACNEWS
Makereta Komai
  • Manager of Public Affairs and Media at RAMSI (Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands)
Johnson Honimae
  • Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation (SIBC)
  • Constitutional Reform Program / Constitutional Reform Unit
    (Solomon Islands Government)
  • Twitter Twitter
  • Facebook Facebook
  • E-mail
  • Phone: (+677/21209)
  • Fax: (+677/28649)
  • Postal Constitutional Reform Unit Office of the Prime Minister and Cabinet P.O. Box G1, Honiara, Solomon Islands
  • Secretariat of the Pacific Community (Headquarters)
  • Secretariat of the Pacific Community (Country Office - Solomon Islands)
  • European Union Delegation to Solomon Islands (and Vanuatu)
  • Solomon Star (a SI printed & on-line newspaper)
  • E-mail
  • Twitter Twitter
  • Facebook Facebook
  • Phone: (+677/22062) (ask to be put through to the Newsroom)
  • Fax 1: (+677/25290)
  • Fax 2: (+677/24818)
  • Postal Solomon Star Limited, New Chinatown, PO Box 255, Honiara, Solomon Islands
  • Island Sun (a SI printed & on-line newspaper)
  • Solomon Times Online (a SI on-line newspaper)
  • Sunday Isles
  • Forum Solomon Islands International (FSII)
  • Facebook Facebook (one has to acquire permission to 'join the group' to post, comment, and see discussions)
One can also try to deliver a message to the United Nations (UN) Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Regional Office for the Pacific Facebook | Twitter.

Update as of 24 February 2016: Toiko Tõnisson Kleppe, the Fiji-based Human Rights Officer at OHCHR signed the petition! Thank you Toiko!br>

P.S.: full title of this article & explanation of the title

The full title of this article is: "Explicit allowance of discrimination (and of advocacy of hatred, and of incitement to cause harm) on grounds of sexual orientation [LGBTQ+] in latest endorsed draft [published on 6 May 2014] of Solomon Islands' Constitution".

The title of this article includes LGBTQ+ (in between square brackets), because there is a severe stigma and discrimination against LGBTQ+ in Solomon Islands; although the Constitutional draft (which is based on the 4th and final Joint Plenary ever)101 does not specifies this, and thus allows for discrimination (and from that: incitements of hatred and harm) against ANY (thus also against the publicly prevailing) sexual orientation.

Footnotes

  • 1. a. b. c. d. e.http://vincentverhey..., Second 2014 draft [published on 6 May 2014] for proposed Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Solomon Islands, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT [SOLOMON ISLANDS JOINT CONSTITUTIONAL CONGRESS AND EMINENT PERSONS ADVISORY COUNCIL]
  • 2.https://law.uq.edu.a..., School of Historical and Philosophy Inquiry, Australia: The University of Queensland, at 29/2/2016
  • 3.http://annenberg.usc..., Larry Gross, USC Annenberg [University of Southern California], at 25/2/2016
  • 4.https://gayanusantar..., Vision & Mission, GAYa NUSANTARA, at 29/2/2016
  • 5. This reference was added later, and not present in the original letter. Compare the contradiction of this allowance of discrimination with the obligations of Solomon Islands under international law, in the following recent submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review:

    https://uprdoc.ohchr..., Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review regarding the protection of the rights of LGBTI persons in the Solomon Islands, 24th session of the Universal Periodic Review, January—February 2016, Kaleidoscope Australia, Human Rights Foundation
  • 6. I have not counted the pages comprising the table of contents here.
  • 7. a. b. c.http://www.sicr.gov...., [Endorsement for release:] Ronald Unusi [PS/CRU] & Karl Kuper [Director/CRU], Quarterly Newsletter 1 (17), January—March 2014, Constitutional Reform Unit, at 7/2/2016
  • 8.https://web.archive...., Solomon Islands Constitutional Reform Website [archived at 9/6/2014, at 6/2/2016]
  • 9. a. b. c. d.http://www.equalrigh..., Stand Up and Fight: Addressing Discrimination and Inequality in Solomon Islands, Equal Rights Trust in partnership with The Secretariat of the Pacific Community [– Solomon Islands Country Office and The Secretariat of the Pacific Community & – Regional Rights Resource Team], 1/2016, at 7/2/2016
  • 10. a. b.http://www.sicr.gov...., Suva-based awareness on the 2nd 2014 Draft Federal Constitution ends, Constitutional Reform Unit, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 24/10/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 11. a. b.http://www.sicr.gov...., Suva-based Solomon Islanders made aware of 2nd 2014 Draft Federal Constitution, Constitutional Reform Unit, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 20/10/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 12. a. b.http://www.sicr.gov...., Vanuatu-based Solomon Law students go through 2nd 2014 Draft Federal Constitution, Constitutional Reform Unit, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 30/10/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 13.http://www.visitsolo..., How to Get to the Solomon Islands | Official Tourism Site, Solomon Islands Visitors Bureau, at 6/2/2016
  • 14.http://sja.sdes.ucf...., LGBTQ+ Terminology, Social Justice and Advocacy (SJA) [Student Development and Enrollment Services (SDES), University of Central Florida], modified 6/8/2014, at 6/2/2016.
  • 15.http://lgbtihealth.o..., About ‘LGBTI’, Australia: National LGBTI Health Alliance, at 6/2/2016
  • 16.http://www.sicr.gov...., Amended and Produced by: The Solomon Islands National Constitutional Congress & The Eminent Persons Advisroy Council Honiara, Solomon Islands [With Technical Assistance from: CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM UNIT. Office of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT. 1ST 2009 DRAFT. FEDERAL CONSTITUTION OF SOLOMON ISLANDS, 26 June 2009
  • 17.http://www.sicr.gov...., 2011 DRAFT FEDERAL CONSTITUTION OF SOLOMON ISLANDS, Official Website of the Constitutional Reform Program of Solomon Islands
  • 18.http://www.sicr.gov...., Official Website of the Constitutional Reform Program of Solomon Islands
  • 19.http://www.sicr.gov...., 2013 DRAFT FEDERAL CONSTITUTION OF SOLOMON ISLANDS, Constitutional Reform Program, modified 16/12/2015, at 7/2/2016
  • 20.http://www.sicr.gov.sb/, "2014 Draft audit complete", on the front page of the: Official Website of the Constitutional Reform Program of Solomon Islands, at 7/2/2016
  • 21.http://sites.cardiff..., Helen Martin, Whose land is it anyway?, 10/12/2015, The Department of Politics and International Relations, Cardiff University, at 5/2/2016
  • 22.http://www.queensu.c..., [Communications staff], Queen’s remembers Principal Emeritus Ronald L. Watts | Queen's Gazette | Queen's University, 9/10/2015, at 23/2/2016
  • 23. a. b.http://reidfuneralho..., Dr. Ronald L. Watts Memorial | Obituary | Condolences | Kingston | Robert J. Reid & Sons Funeral Home, at 23/2/2016
  • 24.http://www.queensu.c..., Statement from Principal Woolf on the passing of Principal Emeritus Watts | Queen's Gazette | Queen's University, 9/10/2015, at 23/2/2016
  • 25.https://ipsarc28.wor..., Obituary: Prof. Ronald L. Watts | Comparative Federalism and Federation, 12/10/2015, at 23/2/2016
  • 26.http://www.sicr.gov...., CRU shares condolence for Prof. Ronald Watts [PRESS RELEASE], Constitutional Reform Unit, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 10/10/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 27. a. b. c.http://www.queensu.c..., Principal Emeritus Ronald L. Watts, Queen's University, at 6/2/2016
  • 28.http://www.queensu.c..., RONALD L. WATTS, C.C., D. PHIL., LL.D., F.R.S.C., Curriculum Vitae, Queen's University, 7/2009, at 5/2/2016
  • 29. a. b.http://www.sicr.gov...., Experts guide Joint Plenary on audit and drafting, Drafter encourages Plenary to look ahead in constitution - making, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 3/4/2014, at 6/2/2015
  • 30.https://www.linkedin..., Phil Knight [Independent Legislative Counsel, West Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada | Law Practice], LinkedIn, at 5/2/2016
  • 31.http://www.sicr.gov...., Information on the Constitutional Congress & [WORKING GROUPS], Solomon Islands Constitutional Reform Programme, updated 5/2014, modified 16/12/2015, at 7/2/2015
  • 32. Cf. for example the text strings:
    1. "It is understandable that these are qualities to be desired [...]"
    2. "[...] shouldn't that authority have [...]"

    http://vincentverhey..., Second 2014 draft [published on 6 May 2014] for proposed Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Solomon Islands, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT [SOLOMON ISLANDS JOINT CONSTITUTIONAL CONGRESS AND EMINENT PERSONS ADVISORY COUNCIL]
  • 33.http://www.sicr.gov...., Federal system receives full support from all nine Provinces, Constitutional Reform Unit, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 29/9/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 34.http://www.sicr.gov...., Malaita ends awareness on 2014 Draft Federal Constitution, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 26/9/2015, at 6/2/2015

    This press release said there were some 'issues' raised, but these 'issues' are not specifically discussed: Some of the issues discussed were land, development, revenue sharing, national security, the governing and political systems, human rights, customary law and practices.
  • 35.http://www.sicr.gov...., Speaker urges leaders to listen to people’s will, Constitutional Reform Unit, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 21/9/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 36.http://www.sicr.gov...., Western Province recognizes Federalism on Peace Day, Constitutional Reform Unit, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 21/9/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 37.http://www.sicr.gov...., Choiseul Province supports change to Federalism, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 11/9/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 38.http://www.sicr.gov...., Chief calls for unity in Choiseul ahead of Statehood, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 11/9/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 39.http://www.sicr.gov...., Choiseul women call for State government making, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 11/9/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 40.http://www.sicr.gov...., Premier Kiloe urges full participation, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 8/9/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 41.http://www.sicr.gov...., Temotu fully supports shift to Federal System, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 29/8/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 42.http://www.sicr.gov...., Temotu holds Awareness on 2014 Draft Federal Constitution, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 26/8/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 43.http://www.sicr.gov...., Makira/Ulawa strongly supports Federalism, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 16/8/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 44.http://www.sicr.gov...., MP urges Makira/Ulawa to strive for Federalism, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 16/8/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 45.http://www.sicr.gov...., Premier Weape calls for cooperation on Federalism, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 16/8/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 46.http://www.sicr.gov...., Makira/Ulawa begins awareness on 2014 Draft, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 12/8/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 47.http://www.sicr.gov....'s%20remarks%2011%2008%2015.pdf, Hon. Manu’ari declares his support for Federalism process, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 12/8/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 48.http://www.sicr.gov...., Central Province endorse move to Federalism, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 31/7/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 49.http://www.sicr.gov...., Central Province reviews 2014 Draft Federal Constitution, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 27/7/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 50.http://www.sicr.gov...., Malaita Outer Islands supports stand for Federalism, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 25/7/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 51.http://www.sicr.gov...., RenBel eager to start Federal Statehood process, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 20/7/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 52.http://www.sicr.gov...., With autonomy comes responsibility: Premier Ramohia, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 26/6/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 53.http://www.sicr.gov...., Malaita Premier urges cooperation for Draft Federal Constitution, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 19/6/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 54.http://www.sicr.gov...., Chief Sabino notes strong input in 2014 Draft Federal Constitution, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 13/6/2015, at 6/2/2015

    This press release says there were "strong inputs", but is not specific as to what those "inputs" actually consist of.
  • 55.http://www.sicr.gov...., Guadalcanal successfully ends awareness 2014 Draft Federal Constitution, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 13/6/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 56.http://www.sicr.gov...., Guadalcanal discuss land matters in 2014 Draft Federal Constitution, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 11/6/2015, at 6/2/2015

    This report mentions that there were 'discussions', but does not publishes any specific criticism or proceedings of those discussions: The discussions centered on land issues faced in Guadalcanal particularly on urban centre's expansion, land alienation, Honiara City boundary, customary and tribal land rights and the administration of land management in Government.
  • 57. a. b.http://www.sicr.gov...., Isabel endorses process to ratify Federal Constitution, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 3/6/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 58.http://www.sicr.gov...., Drafter encourages Plenary to look ahead in constitution - making, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 18/3/2014, at 6/2/2015
  • 59.http://www.sicr.gov...., Makira/Ulawa women urge worth of women leadership, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 14/8/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 60.http://www.sicr.gov...., Guadalcanal open discussion for fair representation in Draft Federal Constitution, OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET, SOLOMON ISLANDS GOVERNMENT, 11/6/2015, at 6/2/2015
  • 61. a. b. c. d.http://old.ilga.org/..., Lucas Paoli Itaborahy & Jingshu Zhu, STATE-SPONSORED HOMOPHOBIA. A world survey of laws: Criminalisation, protection and recognition of same-sex love, International Lesbian Gay Bisexual Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA), 5/2013, at 6/2/2016
  • 62. a. b. c.http://www.paclii.or..., [1996 revised edition of the] LAWS OF SOLOMON ISLANDS. CHAPTER 26. PENAL CODE
  • 63.http://www.equalrigh..., Stand Up and Fight: Addressing Discrimination and Inequality in Solomon Islands, Equal Rights Trust in partnership with The Secretariat of the Pacific Community [– Solomon Islands Country Office and The Secretariat of the Pacific Community & – Regional Rights Resource Team], 1/2016, at 7/2/2016
  • 64. ▸ [archived on 18/9/2014] https://web.archive...., Paragraph 3.19, Review of the Penal Code and Criminal Procedure. Code: Sexual Offences – Sentencing Research Paper, 2011
  • 65. a. b.https://www.unfe.org..., CRIMINALIZATION OF SAME SEX RELATIONS [Interactive Map], The History of the Right to Love (if You’re Gay). Gay criminalization from 1799 to today, UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS. OFFICE OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER, [ Free & Equal is a United Nations campaign for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender equality] [FREE & EQUAL IS AN INITIATIVE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICE], at 28/2/2016
  • 66.http://www.hindustan..., Aparna Alluri & Harry Stevens, How the World Inherited Anti-Gay Laws. Most countries that still criminalise homosexuality are former colonies. That’s not a coincidence, 23/2/2016, at 28/2/2016
  • 67.http://www.bbc.com/n..., Where is it illegal to be gay?, BBC News, 10/2/2014, at 6/2/2016
  • 68.https://books.google..., Barbara A. West, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, 2009 [first 1967], Facts on File, Inc. [An imprint of Infobase Publishing], [ISBN-13: 978-0-8160-7109-8], [ISBN-10: 0-8160-7109-8], pp. 749-750
  • 69.http://ilga.org/coun..., Solomon Is., Archives, International Lesbian Gay Bisexual Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA), at 6/2/2016
  • 70.http://www.state.gov..., 2009 Human RIghts Report: Solomon Islands, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 11/3/2010, at 6/2/2016
  • 71.http://www.state.gov..., 2010 Human RIghts Report: Solomon Islands, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 8/4/2011, at 6/2/2016
  • 72. a. b.http://www.state.gov..., 2011 Human RIghts Report: Solomon Islands, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 24/3/2012, at 6/2/2016
  • 73. a. b.http://www.state.gov..., 2012 Human RIghts Report: Solomon Islands, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 19/4/2013, at 6/2/2016
  • 74. a. b.http://www.state.gov..., 2013 Human RIghts Report: Solomon Islands, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 27/2/2014, at 6/2/2016
  • 75. a. b.http://www.state.gov..., 2014 Human RIghts Report: Solomon Islands, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 25/6/2015, at 6/2/2016
  • 76.http://www.equalrigh..., Solomon Islands – New Report Finds Traditions Must be Challenged to Address Inequality, Equal Rights Trust, 20/1/2016, at 6/2/2016
  • 77. It is unclear to me as to what this is an abbreviation of, in this source (a newspaper article). It could be meaning 'United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC)' (which I think is the most plausible, considering the context) 'United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees' (elsewhere also abbreviated exactly as 'UNHCR'), or maybe 'Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights' (which seems now to be abbreviated 'OHCHR' elsewhere), or maybe 'United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights' (which seems to be abbreviated 'UNHCHR' elsewhere) although the latter's sub-office in Honiara was only opened in 2006.

    https://books.google..., Sue Farran, Human Rights in the South Pacific: Challenges and Changes, Routledge, First published 2009, [Master e-book ISBN: 0-203-88268-7], p. 299

    The newspaper article (which mentions that Ashley Wickham was head of the Honiara Office of 'UNHCR'), uses the abbreviation 'UNHCR' elsewhere in the article for 'United Nations Commissioner for Human Rights'.

    Originally:
    ▸ [broken link] http://www.heraldsun..., Solomon Islands: Mother remanded on lesbian charge, Australia: Herald Sun, 8/12/2003, at 6/2/2016

    Now consultable via either of the following:
    http://archive.globa..., Gay Solomon Islands News & Reports, 1/1/2009, GlobalGayz, at 6/2/2016
    http://www.glapn.org..., Mother Remanded on Lesbian Charge, Sodomy Laws, edited 18/4/2004, at 6/2/2016

    In another media article on Solomon Islands (but only in 2012), Ashley Wickham was claimed to be "National Human Rights officer for the UNHCR". In that article, this abbreviation seems (but not explicitly explaining the abbreviation) to refer for 'United Nations High Commission for Human Rights'.

    http://www.radioaust..., Human rights abuses exist but aren't widespread, updated 22/3/2012, ABC Radio Australia, at 9/2/2015
  • 78.http://www.radionz.c..., Solomon Islands court remands woman charged with homosexual act, Radio New Zealand International, 12/3/2004, at 6/2/2016

    Or via:
    http://archive.globa..., Gay Solomon Islands News & Reports, 1/1/2009, GlobalGayz, at 6/2/2016
  • 79.http://www.solomonti..., Strong Public Opposition to Idea on Legalising Gay and Lesbian Status [A move to the idea of legalizing gender equality for gays and lesbians in Solomon Islands receives strong opposition from the general public], Solomon Times Online, 23/12/2008, at 7/2/2016
  • 80.http://monash.edu/ne..., Paula Gerber, Why the Pacific islands are no gay paradise, News and events | Opinions, Monash University, 14/5/2014, at 8/2/2016
  • 81.http://www.radioaust..., Homosexuality to remain illegal in Samoa, Solomon Islands and PNG, ABC Radio Australia, updated 29/2/2012, at 7/2/2016
  • 82. a. b. c. d. e.http://www.solomonst..., John Aatai, Toki: Same-sex marriage is not for today, 25/8/2015, Solomon Star, at 5/2/2016
  • 83.https://books.google..., Robert Aldrich, Section "The case of the Solomon Islands", in: Chapter 8 "Sex in the South Seas", in: Robert Aldrich, "Colonialism and Homosexuality", Routledge. Taylor & Francis Group, 2002
  • 84. We now know that sexual orientation and transgender status are not ‘lifestyles’, wilfully adopted by minorities to challenge divine and local law.

    They are inbuilt features of human beings (and other mammalian species). Therefore, imposition of criminal punishments and withdrawal of protection from discrimination, constitute irrational and unscientific responses to the characteristics of the persons concerned.

    http://www.hivhumanr..., Michael Kirby, UNAIDS Reference Group on HIV and Human Rights, at 8/2/2016
  • 85. a. b. c. d. e. f. g.http://www.solomonst..., Jackson Ray [Fulton College. Nadi, Fiji Islands], Same sex marriage, [Letters to the Editor], Solomon Star, 26/8/2015, at 7/2/2016
  • 86.http://www.upr-info...., United Nations. General Assembly, Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Eleventh session, Geneva 2-13 May 2011, Draft report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review. Solomon Islands [final document will be issued under A/HRC/18/8], 9/5/2011, [A/HRC/WG.6/11/L.6], at 8/2/2016
  • 87.http://www.upr-info...., [HON.] PETER SHANEL AGOVAKA [MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND EXTERNAL TRADE. HEAD OF SOLOMON ISLANDS DELEGATION TO THE 18th SESSION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL], SOLOMON ISLANDS COUNTRY STATEMENT. Solomon Islands Response to the HRC-UPRWG 115 Recommendations, 21/9/2011, at 8/2/2016
  • 88.https://en.wikipedia..., "Summary of denominational positions in North America and Europe", in: List of Christian denominational positions on homosexuality, Wikipedia, at 7/2/2016 [cf. here for a permanent archive of the consulted version]
  • 89. a. b. c.http://www.nhm.uio.n..., AGAINST NATURE? [- an exhibition on animal homosexuality], UiO Naturhistorisk museum [The Natural History Museum, University of Oslo], 25/2/2009, updated 24/2/2012, at 7/2/2016
  • 90.http://www.paclii.or..., Solomon Islands Magistrates Bench Book, 2004
  • 91. Cf. any handbook on or introduction to the discipline of 'cultural philosophy', to understand this.

    For people who can read Dutch, I based myself on studying the book (and on a course Cultural Philosophy by the Belgian philosopher Geert Van Eekert, which followed it):
    ▸ René Boomkens, Erfenissen van de Verlichting. Basisboek Cultuurfilosofie, Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Boom, 2011
  • 92.https://www.metmuseu..., "Melanesia, 1800–1900 A.D." [dated 10/2004], in: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–, at 7/2/2016
  • 93.https://books.google..., Gilbert H. Herdt [edited by], Ritualized Homosexuality in Melanesia, University of California Press, First Paperback Printing 1993, 1984, [ISBN: 0-520-08096-3], [ANSI: Z39.48-1984], p. 8
  • 94.http://www.jstor.org..., Sarah F. Hoyt, The Etymology of Religion, Journal of the American Oriental Society 32 (2), 1912, pp. 126-129
  • 95.http://namnews.files..., Albert Einstein, Ideas and opinions, Crown publishers, 1960, p. 11 (first: 1954). First in German: ▸ https://gedankenfrei..., Albert Einstein, Mein Weltbild, Ullstein, p. 422 (first: Querido verlag, 1934)
  • 96. a. b.http://onlinelibrary... / https://www.deepdyve..., John Skalko, Is Sodomy Against Nature? A Thomistic Appraisal, The Heythrop Journal 56 (5), pp. 759-768, 9/2015 [first published online 23/1/2015], at 7/2/2016
  • 97. Even though that one might be misled (by the terminology naturally designed) when one sees or hears a sentence in biology, such as: Trait S [Sexuality] is naturally designed to do R [Reproduction]. One can actually understand this sentence without any 'teleological'-sounding terminology, e.g. by saying that: Trait S [Sexuality] is naturally designed to do R [Reproduction] means that
    • R is a biological function of S and
    • S is the result of a process of change of (anatomical or behavioral) structure due to natural selection that has resulted in T being more optimal (or better adapted) for R than ancestral versions of S.
    That, further more, does not need to make us forget many other biological functions of S (Sexuality).

    Source (I applied propositions 'S' & 'R' here):
    http://plato.stanfor..., Colin Allen, Teleological Notions in Biology, 2003, in: Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2009 Edition)
  • 98. a. b.http://countryoffice..., SOLOMON ISLANDS [published during or after 2010], modified 24/1/2014, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), at 7/2/2016
  • 99. Use this link to reveal the comments by the Constitutional Reform Program as a reply to the question below. Alternatively, click on the comments-symbol below, which will take you to the same Facebook replies:

    Hi there.....When is the exact date set for the Final Joint Plenary? Is this the final plenary session before the final...

    Posted by Malaii P Maesilia on Wednesday, 13 February 2013
  • 100. a. b. The 1978 Constitution of Solomon Islands can be found here:
    On-line availability of the 1978 Constitution of Solomon Islands
    Source Digital format
    World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) PDF & HTML
    Pacific Islands Legal Information Insititute (PacLII) HTML
    National Parliament of Solomon Islands HTML
    International Labour Organization (ILO), but from PacLII PDF
  • 101. a. b.http://www.sicr.gov...., Working Structure of Constitutional Reform Program, updated 12/2015, Solomon Islands Constitutional Reform Programme
  • 102. Use this link to reveal the reply which asks for an update as a reply to the notice below. Alternatively, click on the comments-symbol below, which will take you to the same Facebook reply:

    4th Joint Plenary of Constitutional Congress in 4th week of meeting over audit and drafting of #SolomonIslands proposed Federal Constitution

    Posted by Solomon Islands Constitutional Reform Program on Wednesday, 12 March 2014
  • 103.http://www.sicr.gov.sb/, Solomon Islands Constitutional Reform Website [Official website of], modified 17/12/2015, at 22/2/2016
  • 104.http://pmpresssecret..., LAWYERS PLAY CRUCIAL ROLE IN ENSURING A ‘TRULY’ HOMEGROWN FEDERAL CONSTITUTION, PM, Prime Minister's Press Secretariat Office, 27/6/2016
  • 105.http://theislandsun...., Daniel Namosuaia, Malaita province will not support federal system, The Island Sun, 30/6/2016

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