Working for the "waku". Honiara's Chinese businessmen (Leung brothers of Prestige Group, Island Clothing, Disount Electricals, Chinese Association) illegally employing and illegally terminating workers
IntroductionThis article will describe the following events:
- How my Chinese ex-employers Hon Lok "Andy" Leung & his younger brother "Eddy" Leung illegally terminated my contract, since I didn't agree to be censured by their extortion of my freedom of expression;
- How Eddy Leung (as 1 of the 3 members of the Executive Board of Chung Wah School) and his wife Yuna illegally hired my girlfriend (together with another one of our room-mates) to work at Chung Wah School, without any contract.
This article centers around the brothers Hon Lok (English name: "Andy") Leung & his younger brother "Eddy" Leung. They are not related to Patrick Leong of the Pacific Casino Hotel, but instead own the following enterprises:
- Island Clothing (scattered across Honiara)
- Discount Electricals (inside Hyundai Mall), officially named Honiara Lighting & Electrical Supplies (sometimes 'Honiara Lightning' for short)
- Prestige Group (inside Alvaro building)
Illegal termination of workersLet me start this section with a passage from the currently effective Constitution of the Solomon Islands, which clearly protects the freedom of expression:
12. Protection of freedom of expressionOf course, freedom of speech is also a key international right, and clearly vital in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (already mentioned in the second sentence of the PREAMBLE).
- Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, and for the purposes of this section the said freedom includes the freedom to hold opinions without interference, freedom to receive ideas and information without interference, freedom to communicate ideas and information without interference and freedom from interference with his correspondence.1
Enough legal sense thus, you might think, to assume that people in Solomon Islands would not try to illegally refrain my freedom of expression. Unfortunately, I had underestimated how much the Chinese businessmen in Honiara try to protect the interests of their fellow Chinese business magnates, and how little they are ashamed to extort employees for that.
In the LINE (a messaging application) conversation below, one can notice how (starting from Friday 29 April 2016, 14PM) my boss Andy Leung threatens to cancel my work permit and residence visa, if I would not take 2 of my articles off-line "about John Aba and Tommy Chan".
I told Andy Leung that I would try to arrange another visa (I was thinking of a research visa) over the next week, due to this extortion; but that didn't suit the Chinese businessman Andy Leung. Instead, he threatened to cancel my visa and permit, if I didn't remove those articles from the internet immediately.
It can be noted that the threat started after 14PM on Thursday 28 April 2016, without any prior notice of discomfort by my writings. By the next day, Friday 29 April 2016, it seems that Hon Lok "Andy" Leung, went ahead and cancelled my visa before midday.
I would have thought such threats to be more appropriate for dictatorship nations, but have a look at the events for yourself in case you wouldn't believe me:
LINE conversation between myself (left) and Andy Leung (right)
Wednesday, 27 April 2016
Hey mate. I sent you a short mail, just to let you know. Thanks for the amazing dinner, and it's an honour to talk to you again. Kind regards, Vincent.
Thanks Vincent. No worries always nice talking to you.
Thursday, 28 April 2016
Actually, Matthew claims that the "new Chinese" associate much more deeply amongst themselves than the old Chinese do. Matthew likes to play the "good guy's card", and says that the new Chinese are more corrupt. I just thought of this, as you said Chinese in the Solomons don't work together.
You can try talk to more Chinese to find out if they collaborate with each on the business side. I doubt it but don't just take mine or Mathew's words.
If you are going to write something you need to gather as much informations as you can from different people who your topics target on.
If you think Chinese associate with each other, than you can go talk to different Chinese in different shops and how often they do large gathering.
Even out Chinese Association only gathers together once or twice a year.
And we do not discuss business.
Hey Vincent, regarding those articles that you wrote about John Aba and Sir Tommy, im quite concern. There were many things that you stated in there which were absolutely not true and bias.
Thanks for those comments.
What for example was false about Top Timbers?
I'm not their friends but I still respect these two gentlemen who have done a lot for this country.
Hiring underage worker? Is that proven?
Did you ask those kids were they under Top Timbers payroll?
And how much they were paid?
And how much they were paid?
That's why I say presumably, thus not false. It's not about those kids.
Or did you just assume they worked there because you saw them there?
I asked workers there the estimation of other peoples ages.
The kids worry me because they shouldn't be in a dangerous place like that. They are just school kids coming from school.
They confirmed to be employees of top timber?
According to other employees. But it might be good to rephrase some things as the definition of under-age seems to used sometimes more strict then I intended to use it.
But your heading and article suggest these kids were employed by John Aba?
I also mention civilians, not only workers.
I think the best thing to nuance the article is to add the info that legal work age is 12, and for dangerous work (which is the case here, I think) is 15.
But I think the word "under-age" can be used in both a legal as well as in a moral sense: they are 2 different uses.
But perhaps it is mainly used in a legal sense, in most definitions...
What I'm trying to say here is not about arguing what the legal working age here in Solomon is. This can easily be known by checking with labour department. What bothers me was that you inferred John was using underage workers. But you didn't find out the age of these workers by just directly asking them. Nor did you confirm that they were employees there. How much they were paid etc.
I understand that, and I agree with you. The other workers said that some of the other workers were I was pointing too were 14 or 15. So that is just a presumption, but I described the source of information. That is obviously not the best reliable source. And my research method was not good either. But that is what readers like you already know, and I agree on that.
But even if they wouldn't be employed. Then the company is still responsible of them entering the workplace. But, nevertheless I acknowledge that I didn't know their exact age for sure: that is true. My little visit has a lot of limitations.
Yes I agreed that their workplace safety is questionable but that is applicable to most of the industries at Ranandi.
Vincent, I'm sorry to tell you but Eddy wasn't happy as well with what you wrote. Both of us don't want to be dragged in.
Because you are under our company, people may think what you wrote was our idea.
While you have nothing to loose because you're not a Solomon citizen here, nor were you planned to stay here long term. But for us, because on paper we are your employer, we are responsible of your action.
Your attack to Earth Movers could be seen by them as an attack from us.
I didn't think of it that way yet. That's certainly not my goal. We can try to find a solution for that as quickly as possible. I will talk to EU soon.
About Earth Movers, I will not publish anything for many many months, but I understand your concern.
Even with Tommy Chan and John Aba, we do not want to be associated with any criticisms on them.
What about EU? What can they do for you?
Ok, I understand. Will look for a solution. I didn't mean to write on behalf of anyone else.
I thought I could ask them some advice about permits or so. Maybe I can switch to a research visa for some months.
Yes I know that Vincent. And i know thats not your intention to cause any problems to us.
Yes, that would be the best option.
Eddy has been telling me to cancel your work permit and I'm holding it off as long as I can.
He has been pressuring me but I also understand his concern.
Ok no worries. I'll find another permit or anything during next week. Perhaps he could have told me more early. I wouldn't take any offense in that.
Ok Vincent thanks for that.
In the meantime until you find another permit, could you remove the post about John Aba and Tommy Chan?
After you got your new permit, its not my business and you can repost it if you wish.
It has been on there for many many months? What does it matter a few days?
It matters to Eddy and if its there I'm sure he would go ahead to cancel your permit.
That's the only way I can convince him to hold of off until you get a new permit.
Ok. It's up to him i he wants to cancel. I'm not willing to censure my writings.
But I have to tell you if he does that you will have to leave away because your residence permit will also be cancelled.
It's up to him. I care about information. He could just have told me he wanted to do that a long time ago. Funny that today is the first time I hear about that, and today he wants it cancelled.
For the sake for all of us it's better if you can remove those post.
I dont see it that way. If all of us means the general public.
He only knows about your post after I told him when I came back here.
And he only mentioned that about cancelling your permit two days ago.
Ok. Maybe he could have told me, as I had asked you guys.
I wanted to tell you last night but I didn't want to say it in front of Michi and Lisa.
But I do agree with eddy that your articles will cause us in trouble.
We are third generation here and we still wish to live here.
It might be better for your business to ship me off in another way as well, because I was collecting info about salaries of guards in different companies. It seems like Alvaro is bordering minimum wage.
But I didn't finish that project yet.
I understand. If you can't way a few days to cancel a permit, then that's up to you.
If you also want to investigate and write about our business, thats fine. But I suggest you also get first hand informations from us. I will be happily show you our books to prove that we pay our staff well over minimum wages.
Ok. I didn't start the investigation thoroughly, but just asked a guard who worked somewhere else as well, who told me his figures.
And talk directly to our staff to get the facts rather than writing from hearsay and third party informations.
That guy turned out to work as a staff (security) at Alvaro, but I met him in another post (he sometimes changes).
You can see Maricris the Filipino lady at Alvaro. She does all payroll for our staff.
That's very open to be willing to share such info.
Try find out from her how much we paid the security company, see our cheque books if you don't believe.
It's much appreciated. But I would rather compare between different businesses. No time considering other projects now...
And compare the amount to what the amount the security guards are telling you
Definitely necessary yes.
Then you will know what the local people tell you is not necessary the truth.
For your informations we are spending around $30,000 to $40,000 just for security service at Central Plaza alone.
That's a lot of money to support local families. Providing employment to a lot of people.
So when actually is it effectively cancelled, the work visa?
There is a cancellation period of some weeks, right? I remember from signing the documents.
If we cancelled the visa then you have two weeks.
Ok, that's plenty of time to either border hop or wander off for longer terms. Getting another visa seems like to much of a fuss (imagine they get scared too of critical writings, which are part of our rights to freedom of speech). ;)
Even if someone agrees to apply work permit for you, it will take a bit of time. I think a few weeks.
Plenty of people have asked me to work for them, but I am generally not so interested in that.
It's OK to write critically but it's not OK to write things with only half truth.
Why not? just for the convenience and they can apply work permit for you.
I am generally not interested in officious documents like that.
But Andy, when I write articles, I always refer to the sources where I get information from. This is a very important aspect of the scientific process. There is no fundamental problem with analyzing part of a topic really, as regards to still maintaining scientific integrity. Scientists know how to interpret science, and single study research findings; certainly when the way of research is described.
For example, if I say that Tommy organized vote-buying support for corrupt politicians, then I cite a source from a let's call it a respectable institution, which is known for fact-checking.
That's how science goes about Andy. You are mainly just scared, I would say; or have another reason to want to kick me off.
I think that the things which I document and also criticize, regarding e.g. Top Timbers, are well worth to be criticized. That doesn't mean I know everything about Top Timbers, but there's nobody who assumes so. I didn't wrote an encyclopedia of Top Timbers, and even encyclopedias have to be selective. I just selected some information which you perhaps would prefer to hide.
Why? Because that are the very first things I notice (it is very clear from my article that I didn't do an in-depth study). I think nobody in England would agree to give such foreign manager an award, provided they knew about the working conditions.
When you wrote
"Vote-buying support from Chinese business leaders, coordinated by Thomas Chan, was the cause of the election of Snyder Rini as Prime Minister in the 2006 general election"can you show me the source of this?
Where exactly did you get that from?
Friday, 29 April 2016
Yes, certainly. It's just more down in the article, I will send it to you soon.
That source, on its turn, writes:
"Snyder Rini was elected Prime Minister in the 2006 general election due to vote-buying support from Chinese business leaders, which was coordinated by Thomas Chan.", where I referenced the following source, edited by 4 authors and published by The Australian National University:
▸ http://press.anu.edu..., "Peace processes", in: John Braithwaite & Sinclair Dinnen & Matthew Allen & Valerie Braithwaite & Hilary Charlesworth (Eds.), Politics and State Building in Solomon Islands, Canberra: ANU E Press, The Australian National University, 2010, ISBN: 978-1-921-66679-7.
That source, on its turn, writes:
In 2006, Rini, with vote-buying support from Chinese business leaders coordinated by Sir Thomas Chan, was elected prime minister by the Parliament—a result that led to the 2006 riots at the Parliament and the razing of Chinatown."
I also directly quoted form another source:
"In 2006, he [Tommy Chan] gained influence by supporting the political coalition that successfully bid for the election of Prime Minister Snyder Rini, only to be dethroned when other business interests moved their support away from parties in the ruling coalition."
▸ https://books.google..., Gordon Leua Nanau, "How Political Parties Do and Do Not Contribute to Democratic Governance in the Solomon Islands", in: Kay Lawson (Ed.), Political Parties and Democracy [Luc Sindjoun & Marian Simms & Kay Lawson (Volume Eds.),Volume IV: Africa and Oceania], pp. 201, 7/2010.
I also wrote the following:
"The main reasons of the Chan's support to these governments have been the tax breaks they received during many years, and wanting to obtain Honiara's third casino license. The construction of suitable buildings for a casino at their hotel had already started. Nevertheless, they have not been allowed a license."This, I have paraphrased from the writings of Clive Moore, who wrote an entry on "Asian involvement in the economic and political processes", in the edited "Politics and State Building in Solomon Islands":
▸ http://press.anu.edu..., Clive Moore, "No more walkabout long Chinatown: Asian involvement in the economic and political process", in: Sinclair Dinnen & Stewart Firth (Eds.), Politics and State Building in Solomon Islands, Canberra: ANU E Press, Asia Pacific Press, 2008, pp. 64–95, ISBN: 978-1-921-31366-0.
That is why, at the top of the article, I wrote
"(cf. below for the sources and more detailed information contained in this introductory paragraph)."
Thanks Vincent for showing me the source of where you got that statement from but this source may not necessary be the truth. These people who wrote it weren't even living here in Honiara.
Andy, I am not sure if you can know if those writers were or were not living in Honiara, and who they have contact with. I am not going to go for a work permit. I don't want to get involved with more frightened businessmen who endorse bad practices by criticizing the freedom of speech of their employees. I am not interested in money, only about research.
The article is not an example of scientific dis-integrity. So stop criticizing science, just admit you like to cover up (parts of) the truth for your personal interest. Anyway, you can try to pull it off with people who are not scientists, but not with me. As I know better where I get info from, you could even check it out as well. Just read the article carefully without thinking about your money.
Whatever you said, we all have our own opinions. Since if you're not interested in looking for another company to hire you, then I will just cancel your work permit.
It's up to you. FYI I wrote a lot more about Jimmy Rasta than about Top Timbers and Tommy Chan, in case you're interested and scared of research about him too.
You might not be scared but your actions have caused inconvenience to other people and this is called irresponsible. It's simple for you because you can just leave the country. You're not even a Solomon islander and you don't care what kind of troubles you will bring to others.
Inconvenience to who? Inconvenience can mean many things. Think about a more general picture, instead of about a few rich friends or your own private business: do you think it would be great if every company in the country sacks his employees if they write critical papers about socio-economical topics? That's a great way of fighting corruption Andy. Sounds like communist China.
Vincent you don't even work for me as you have resigned. So what you write doesn't matter to me.
On Monday, can you bring your passport to the immigration so we can have the residency cancelled? I will also inform the labour department.
That message sais a lot about your interest in truth: you only care about writings, and try to push people away, when they can criticize some of your financial interests.
I have no financial interest with any of the people you wrote about. But I don't agree with your style of writing about people and attacking people. Without even trying to find out the facts from the person you're writing on.
When I write about John Aba, I write about what I document at his company. When I write about Tommy Chan, I base myself on references. If you think every document about a business or businessman should include interviews with that businessman, then I think you misunderstand the multitude of science. Funny how you tried to play good guy, bad guy with your brother as well.
We have given you all the chances but you don't want to take any of those options. So just leave it as this. We will go ahead and cancel your visa.
Grace would also like a book about Solomon Islands, especially about things which are bad (for which she had asked my help to research, so that we could perhaps write a book together; when she would translate to Chinese). Such is what she said when she first came here. If you want, you might want to let her know that she might lose her job permit if she uses her freedom of speech, considering what some board member might advise; especially if it's not according to their "preferred style".
Saturday, 30 April 2016
Whos Grace? I don't know her and she can write whatever she wants. We will not stop you from writing anything as long as you're not our employee.
You will never stop me from writing anything.
Please bring your passport on Monday so we can cancel the residence permit.
SMS conversation between myself (left) and Eddy Leung (right)
Friday, 29 April 2016
Hi Vincent, I'm sorry to message u this late however I need to talk you and Lisa tomorrow. Can you both come over to my office or I can meet you 2 anywhere? Please let me know the time. Thanks, Eddy.
Hey Eddy, it might be nicer for me to spend some time with Lisa tomorrow, before I take a flight. As Andy claims to have cancelled my visa/permit. For your information, you should have needed to give me a 1 month's notice before termination of contract, instead of 1 day (as stated in the contract which was signed). Certainly because the reason has nothing to do with any instruction regarding graphic design, but rather there was an attempt to refrain a person's freedom of speech; with the threat of (and actual) cancellation of visa/permit. If you want to tell me or ask me anything, you can always write me a mail. Kind regards, Vincent.
Vincent, reason I want to see u and Lisa is about the school and not about your termination.
That is the reason why I needed to speak to u both and not u alone.
I suggest, if you want to tell me anything, you can just write me a mail mate, I can reply quite quickly too if you have any questions. I am not so interested to talk to people refraining persons' freedom of speech, certainly not tomorrow, as I have different things planned.
Vincent, I don't care much about the things you wrote, that's none of my business. However if you don't want to see me then I will just talk to Lisa about it. Sorry for disturbing you. Goodnight.
Saturday, 30 April 2016
If you say what I wrote is none of your business, then your brother is making up stories about how you were pressurizing him to sack me if I didn't take my articles off-line immediately. Anyway, a lot of bullshit is being produced by the Leung family.
U mind I give you a call now.
I would prefer mail, as it easier to archive. I just put away my recorder, so a call isn't ideal now.
Vincent I can understand that you are upset and not wanting to talk. That is fine. Reason why I wanted to talk is only about Chung Wah School and nothing else. Please let Lisa know I will see her at school next week to discuss the matters.
I suggest you deliver your stories yourself to whom you want to deliver them. I don't trust anything coming from your family.
Like I said it is concerning the school now. What's between you and our company is past.
We are not "refraining your freedom of speech" as how you put it. My family or company do not share the same view as you towards the "local Chinese" hence we do not want to have anything to do with you and that is the reason why we needed to cancel your work permit.This begs for the following remarks:
Our country (I'm a Solomon Islander) has suffered tremendously during the ethnic tension 2000 to 2006. We need to be united rather than divided. Your point of view will only cause division and is not what we need. If you want to have a positive contribution then you should be fighting "CORRUPTION" rather than "RACE".
Lastly the reason I wanted to meet with you and Lisa is because Chung Wah School can no longer have any association with you. You are staying at CWS's apartment because of Lisa so I thought she would also needs to hear my explanation. We would appreciate if you could kindly removed the "Chung Wah School Official Website" and anything regarding Chung Wah School on your blog. I will clarify this matter with Anne next week.
Hope you can understand on where I'm coming from.
- As with regards to the first paragraph: if an employer doesn't share the same view of the peaceful views which an employee writes on his private website, and thinks that's anyhow enough reason to sack somebody, then that's effectively "refraining freedom of speech" and illegal extortion.
- As with regards to the second paragraph: This shows the total lack of understanding of the country's history by Eddy Leung. The ethnic tensions didn't start in 2000, and they didn't end in 2006. Instead the ethnic tensions refer to the years 1998-2003, which anyone who has somewhat looked into literature about the country's contemporary history knows. Eddy wrote: "We need to be united rather than divided." I couldn't agree more, but the country is certainly not united currently: there is a huge big gap between, on the one hand a local low-wage working class working in hazardous environments, and on the other hand rich foreign investors and business owners. The country is racially divided, and critical writings can catalyze the process of defending the rights of the weak. Even the government still distributes different salaries based on receiver's passports (e.g. just take any annual school survey archived and consultable at MEHRD, which each school has to complete, and look at the salary codes for teachers).
llegally employing workersBecause of the illegal threats described above, I took a flight out of the Solomons on 30 April 2016 (16:30PM local time).
As soon as I arrived in Australia, I started explaining to a friend (from whom I learned a lot about the Solomon Islands) about how the Chinese businessmen wanted to shut my freedom of speech. We were both worried about my girlfriend, who was still in the Solomons. My girlfriend was anxious as well, and therefor planned to leave the country soon too.
I told my friend that my girlfriend wasn't even given a contract for her work at Chung Wah School, which greatly raised his eye-brows. In fact, there have been many Chinese businessmen employing their workers without following legal labour requirements, according to allegations from SIBC reports.2 The case I will describe below could certainly be another attempt to avoid social taxation contributions. My friend said that having employees work without a contract is very much illegal, and that the Solomon Islands' Immigration (& Labour) wouldn’t be happy to discover that this was happening at Chung Wah School.
I then informed my girlfriend about those conversations and advised her to ask Eddy Leung why she wasn’t given a contract. My girlfriend then mailed Eddy Leung, on Monday 2 May 2016 [17:17PM local time], to ask why she wasn’t given a contract:
Hello Eddy, I wonder why you never gave me a contract, can you explain that? Thank you.To this, Eddy replied an enlightening information in an e-mail, on Monday 2 May 2016 [17:37PM local time]:
All CWS school teachers has a standard contract. I will ask Elizabeth to arrange your contract together with Selena's.Now, why is this message especially interesting? Because it shows that Eddy was well aware that both my girlfriend, as well as our other room-mate (Selena, who was also working at Chung Wah School as a Chinese teacher) were employed without contract! Even though my girlfriend had not written anything about her room-mate in her mail.
Then, on that same Monday 2 May 2016 [17:44PM local time], Eddy Leung writes the following mail to the shared e-mail account "firstname.lastname@example.org", to which Eddy also has access:
Hi Elizabeth,This e-mail, Eddy CC'ed to Wendy Ho, Antonio Lee, my girlfriend, and our room-mate (the other Chinese teacher).
I think the office may have overlooked this matter as we should have an employment contact for all teachers.
Therefore can you please kindly arrange an employment contract for both Lisa and Selena?
In the morning of 4 May 2016, my girlfriend told the principal of Chung Wah School, Anne Thomas, that she wanted to quit working at the school on 6 May 2016. The principal said: "Ok, but you have to say that 2 months up front, because that is in the contract". My girlfriend told the principal that she never received any contract. The principal was very surprised to hear that and replied: "I thought that the Chinese Association contracted you". My girlfriend replied to her that that was certainly not the case.
Now, please let me below explain how my girlfriend (and analogue our other room-mate, who is another Chinese teacher at Chung Wah School) came to work in Chung Wah School.
To attract her as an employee, my girlfriend was only contacted by Yuna (wife of Eddy Leung) via mail and LINE (a messaging application) to come and work at the school. Yuna was also the only person who informed her about working conditions and benefits which she would receive if she were to come over and do the work. Nevertheless, she was never given any contract to sign, while she came to do the job described by Yuna.
Nevertheless, Yuna wrote the following message to my girlfriend, as early as 12 April 2015:
感謝你對本校的支持!In the message she claimed that it was decided to formally hire my girlfriend for the teaching job...
臉書:趙佑穎 chao yu ying (Yuna)
I am very lucky my girlfriend managed to leave these businessmen some 2 weeks after I left the country due to illegal extortion by the same group of waku (Solomon Islands Pidgin English for "Chinese" in particular, or "Asian" in general) employers.
- 1. The 1978 Constitution of Solomon Islands can be found here:
On-line availability of the 1978 Constitution of Solomon Islands Source Digital format World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) PDF & HTML Pacific Islands Legal Information Insititute (PacLII) HTML National Parliament of Solomon Islands HTML International Labour Organization (ILO), but from PacLII
- 2. E.g., from SIBC Newsroom, as archived in the IuMeNau e-mail network (meaning "You Me Now" in English):
POOR WORK CONDITIONS▸ [Sender: SIBC Newsroom (email@example.com...)] [Receivers: Moira (firstname.lastname@example.org...) & mailing list email@example.com & ROC (firstname.lastname@example.org) & email@example.com...] SIBC Newsroom, [iu_mi_nao] news, 27/11/2000 [7:03PM], Printed [and OCR'ed] for Clive Moore, page index 02892.
A Honiara citizen has called on Solomon Islands Chinese shop operators to be just and fair to Solomon Islands employees.
Dalton Mane alleged many Chinese shop owners in the capital, were not complying with the provisions of employment or labour laws in the country.
Mr Mane said as a former shop assistant, he was speaking on behalf of many Solomon island shop assistants affected by poor working conditions in many Chinese shops.
He said many shop owners do not provide accommodation or housing allowance, maternity leave and NPF contributions.
He says many Chinese shop operators pay their workers very low wages.
Meanwhile, NPF said it is a crime for employers not to register their employees with the fund and make deductions on their behalf.
He said certain provisions of the NPF act and Regulations require those who were employed for six days and earn more than twenty dollars during the period must contribute to the fund.
SIBC was not able to contact the Chairman of the Solomon Islands Chinese Association to comment on Mr Mane's allegations.
However, one Chinese businessman said he was aware of the fact that many newcomer Chinese business owners may have not been complying with the provisions of the labour laws especially the NPF act because they are either ignorant or not familiar with the requirements.
The Iu-Mi-Nao e-mail network started "in mid 1999", "run at first out of [the University of South Pacific] (USP) in Fiji by Zeloti Hoala, and then transferred to New Zealand for the long term under webmaster Paul Roughan".
▸ Clive Moore, Happy Isles in Crisis. The historical causes for a failing state in Solomon Islands, 1998-2004, Canberra: Asia Pacific Press, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University, 2004, pp. 265+xi, p. ix
- 1. The 1978 Constitution of Solomon Islands can be found here: